- Part 1. Beets - useful properties, varieties, varieties
- Part 2. Agricultural technology for growing beets
More and more amateur gardeners complain that the beets are not sweet, the flesh is ligneous and they do not find the reasons for such a change. The reasons are mainly caused by poor-quality seeds, the purchase of fodder varieties instead of table ones, violation of agricultural technology and growing conditions. Therefore, before moving on to the agricultural technology of table beets, let's get acquainted with its requirements for growing conditions.
Beet requirements for growing conditions
Beetroot belongs to the group of heat-loving crops, but it is quite cold-resistant. Sowing it in open ground begins with the establishment of a constant soil temperature in a 10-15 cm layer of at least + 8 ... + 10 ° C. With early sowing with the return of cold weather, the beets after germination can go into the arrow and not form a high-quality crop. Root crops will be small with a dense woody cloth, tasteless or with a grassy flavor. For the appearance of seedlings, an ambient temperature of + 4 ... + 6 ° C is sufficient. Early seedlings can withstand short-term freezing up to -2 ° C, but root crops will be small. Take your time with sowing beets or sow in several terms with a break of 7-10-15 days. One of the crops will fall into optimal conditions and form the crop of the expected quality you need.Beet.
Light mode for beetroot
To get high-quality high yields of any crop (not only beets), you need to know its biology, including its relation to the light regime. Beets are a typical plant of a long day. Beet cultivars at the level of genetic memory have fixed this biological feature, and the maximum yield is formed when cultivated with a daylight duration of 13-16 hours. A change in the duration of daylight for 2-3 hours mainly causes an increase in the aerial part, and the development of the root crop slows down.
Remember! The shorter the maturity of the crop, the less beets respond to changes in daylight hours.
Old, stable beet varieties are stronger than young ones attached to the light regime and react negatively to changes in the length of light illumination. To obtain high-quality crops, it is more practical to buy modern zoned beet seeds that are most adapted to the length of the light period of the region and have little response to the duration of lighting. In addition, breeders currently bred varieties and hybrids that are practically not responsive to longitude lighting. Therefore, it is better to buy modern varieties and hybrids (F-1) of table beets.
The ratio of beets to moisture
Beets are sufficiently able to independently provide themselves with moisture. But with insufficient rainfall, it needs watering. Irrigation rates should be moderate, since excess moisture during rarefied plant density forms large root crops, often with cracks.A bed with beets.
Beet soil requirements
Beetroot is a neutral soil plant. On acidified soils, the crop is formed insignificant with low taste qualities of the root crop. The culture prefers floodplain soils, light loams, chernozems. It does not tolerate heavy clay, rocky, saline soils with high standing water.
Beetroot requirement for predecessors
The best predecessors are early-harvested crops, including cucumbers, zucchini, early cabbage, early potatoes, early varieties of eggplant and sweet pepper, early tomatoes. Particularly important is the harvesting time of the predecessor during the winter sowing of table beets. The soil must be fully prepared for sowing.
Features of beetroot agricultural technology
Selection of beet seeds for sowing
As a botanical plant, beets are an interesting way to form fruits. The beet fruit is a single-seed nutlet. When the seeds ripen, the fronds grow together with the perianth and form a glomerular fruit, which also has the second name "beet seed." Each glomerulus contains from 2 to 6 fruits with a seed. Therefore, when germinating, several independent sprouting sprouts appear. When sowing seedlings, the beet seedlings need thinning. Reception is usually carried out manually, which is accompanied by high costs of working time and, accordingly, higher production costs when cultivated in large specialized farms.
Breeders bred single-seeded (single seedlings) beet varieties. According to their economic characteristics, they do not differ from the varieties that form seminal fruit. Their main difference is the formation of 1 fruit, which eliminates thinning when leaving. Mock fertility at home before sowing, rubbed with sand. When milling, the infertility is divided into separate seeds.
Of the single-sprout (single-seeded) varieties of beets, the most famous and used for home cultivation are Single-sprouted G-1, Bordeaux single-seeded, Virovskaya single-seeded, Russian single-seeded, Timiryazevsky single-seeded. The above beet varieties are mid-season, high-yielding. The pulp of root vegetables is tender, juicy. They are distinguished by good keeping quality, long storage. Used fresh and for winter harvesting.Beetroot sprouts.
It is more convenient to buy beet seeds for sowing in specialized stores of seed-growing companies. In this case, there is no need to prepare seeds for sowing (dressing, barrage, pan-coating, etc.). When buying beet seeds, be sure to read the recommendations on the package. Sometimes treated seeds do not need to be pre-soaked. They are directly sown in moist soil. In other cases, the seeds are germinated in wet wipes, which speeds up seedling production.
After harvesting, the predecessor is sure to provoke autumn seedlings of weeds with watering with their subsequent destruction. If the site is depleted in organic matter, then mature humus or compost of 2-5 kg per square meter is evenly scattered. m. area of the site. To neutralize acidified soil make lime-fluff 0.5-1.0 kg per 1 square. m and mineral fertilizers - nitroammofosku 50-60 g per 1 square. m. Instead of nitroammofoski, you can prepare a mixture of mineral tuks. Ammonium sulfate, superphosphate and potassium chloride, respectively, 30, 40 and 15 g / sq. m. mix, scatter around the site and dig approximately 15-20 cm. In spring, the soil is loosened by 7-15 cm, the surface is raked and lightly rolled. Rolling is necessary for uniform sowing depth.
Sowing time for beetroot
Beets are sown in the spring when the soil is heated in a 10-15 cm layer to + 10 ° C. Roughly sowing in warm regions and the North Caucasus, carried out after April 15. In the Volga region, other non-chernozemic and central regions, in Kazakhstan - beets are sown in open ground in the first half of May. In the Far East - in the last decade of May-first decade of June. The above sowing dates are more suitable for early beet varieties. Middle and late beet varieties are sown in warm regions at the end of May. Part of this crop is laid for winter storage.
In the Urals and in the Northern regions, late beets are usually not sown in open ground. In the middle zone of Russia, due to the temperate climate, it is possible to grow all varieties of beetroot - from the early ones with root crops in technical ripeness in mid-July to the latest varieties with harvesting in September and first half of October. In these regions of Russia, including non-chernozem, winter beet sowing (late October-early November, November-December) is widely used with cold-resistant varieties that are resistant to shooting. With winter sowing, beets take an early harvest of root crops at the end of June.Beetroot seedlings.
Technology for spring sowing of beetroot seeds
Sowing beet seeds in spring can be carried out with dry and more practical germinated seeds. Seeds are sown in furrows on a flat surface of the field. Germinated seeds are sown in moist soil. Almost all sprouts die in dry soil.
Furrows are cut in 15-30 cm. Sowing on heavy soils is carried out to a depth of 2 cm, on light soils in composition - 4 cm. Crops cannot be deepened. The distance in the row is 2-3 cm, which when thinning is increased to 7-10 cm, which ensures the production of standard (10 cm diameter) root crops. On single-seeded crops of beets, thinning is combined with harvesting of a bunch crop, and when sowing with fruit crops, 2 thinning are performed.
Technology for planting beets seedlings
Beetroot seedlings are usually grown in short summers, combining the initial development in greenhouses and greenhouses with further development in open ground. Beets can be cultivated in warm ridges, covering 1-2 layers of spandbond from the early cold weather. Seeds are sown in greenhouses or a greenhouse in prepared soil 10-12-15 days before the planting period in open ground. Sowing ordinary. To obtain more seedlings, sowing is carried out in glomeruli. The distance in the row is 12-20 cm, depending on the variety, and between the rows 30-40 cm. In the phase of 4-5 leaves (approximately 8 cm in height), a pick is carried out, leaving 1-2 plants in the nest. Dive plants are planted in the ground or in separate peat-humus and other containers for growing, if the weather has not settled. When transplanting beets, it is necessary to treat the central spine as carefully as possible. Its damage will delay the growth of the transplanted plant. When steady warm weather sets in, young plantlets are planted in open ground. Humus peat is immediately planted in the ground with plants. If the pots are reusable, transplantation is carried out by the method of transshipment. With this method, only a small amount of non-standard root crops (deformed) is obtained. When transplanting, observe the following rules:
- transplanted beet seedlings to a constant no more than 8 cm in height. The older the seedlings, the more non-standard root crops in the crop,
- to prevent rifle shooting, it is impossible to deepen beet seedlings when transplanting,
- leave the distance in the row at least 12-15 cm, and between the rows to reduce shading, up to 25-30-40 cm.
Winter beet sowing technology
For winter sowing, the ridge method of planting is most suitable. It provides the best warming up of the soil in spring, and, therefore, obtaining an early harvest of root crops and early bunch production. Winter beet planting is carried out in October-November, or rather, when a steady cooling is established, without returning warm days. At the tops of the ridges, seed is sown in furrows to a depth of 4-6 cm, to preserve from sudden frost. Seeds in the furrows sprinkled on 1-2 cm with humus soil, slightly compacted and on top additionally mulched by 2-3 cm for insulation.
Compacted beet crops
If the garden is small in size, but you want to have a large list of vegetable crops, then beets can be grown in compacted beds, that is, combine several crops on one bed. This technique is especially good in the southern regions, where during a long warm period you can take 2-3 crops of different early precocious crops from one compacted bed. Spring beet crops can be combined on the same bed with carrots, onions, greens, radishes, radishes, spinach, salads, including cabbage, leaf, watercress. When harvesting early beets in the first decade of July, you can occupy the vacated area by repeated sowing of onions on greens, radishes, lettuce, dill. After harvesting greens, you can sow peas or other crops like green manure.Beet.
Caring for the beetroot is:
- in maintaining the site clean of weeds, especially in the initial post-emergence period (until the appearance of the first 2 pairs of leaves). At this time, beets develop very slowly and do not tolerate clogging;
- in the maintenance of row-spacings free from soil crust, to ensure free gas exchange;
- timely feeding;
- maintaining optimal site moisture.
Beets begin to germinate at soil temperatures of + 8 ... + 10 ° C and + 5 ... + 7 ° C in the environment. However, seedlings at this temperature appear late and very uneven. The optimum air temperature is considered to be + 19 ... + 22 ° С. Shoots appear on the 5-8th day and by 10-12th day the culture enters the phase of the fork. In the next 10 days there is a powerful development of the aerial part of the culture (leaf apparatus), and then the development of the root crop begins.
The first loosening is carried out 4-5 days after germination. Loosening is carried out very carefully, gradually deepening the treated layer from 2-4 to 6-8 cm. Loosen the soil in the aisles, in the furrows of the ridge, the sides of the ridges after irrigation and rain. Timely destruction of young weeds slightly injures beet plants and provides the crop with optimal conditions for growth and development. Loosening is stopped after the leaves are closed.A bed with beets.
Thinning is carried out when sowing table beets with fertility (glomeruli). From seedlings develop 3-5 seedlings. Single-seeded varieties, as a rule, do not need thinning, unless harvesting is provided for in a bun. Thinning is performed in cloudy weather after preliminary watering. It is easier to pull the plant out of moist soil without damaging the neighboring one. Thinning beets is carried out twice.
The first time the breakthrough is carried out with the development of 1-2 leaves, removing the weakest and underdeveloped plants. A gap of 3-4 cm is left between the plants. Beet is negatively related to the greater thinness. When thinning multi-seeded crops, 1-2 seedlings are left in place. In this case, thinning is carried out in a phase of 2-3 leaves. Elongated plants are used as seedlings, planting plants along the edges or in the sides of high ridges.
The second thinning is performed, with the development of 4-5 leaves. In this phase, beets have already formed 3-5 cm root crops. In the second thinning, the most tall, developed plants are removed. They reach bunch ripeness and are used as food. At the same time, the state of the plants is monitored and simultaneously diseased and bent plants are removed. The distance in the row for the normal development of the root crop is 6-8-10 cm.
Beet top dressing
During the growing season, at least two top dressings of varieties of middle and late beets are carried out. Early beets, with good autumn dressing with fertilizers, are usually not fed. It is difficult for gardeners, especially beginners, to calculate the right amount of fertilizer. The culture is often overfed, and it has the ability to accumulate nitrites, which determine the carcinogenicity of the culture and nitrates.
The first top dressing is carried out after the first thinning or rooting of seedlings. You can feed the nitroammophos - 30 g square. m or a mixture of mineral tuks at the rate of 5-7 g / sq. m respectively sodium nitrate, superphosphate and potassium chloride.
On depleted soils, it is better to carry out the first top dressing with a solution of mullein or bird droppings in a ratio of 1 part mullein to 10 parts, and bird droppings to 12 parts of water. 5 g of urea can be added to the solution. Make a solution at a distance of 6-10 cm from a row of beets in a 3-4 cm furrow. Use a bucket of solution per 10 meters. Watering is carried out from a watering can close to the soil, so as not to burn the leaves. After making the solution, it is covered with a layer of soil, watered and mulched. Feeding with liquid organics is carried out only in the initial period of development of beets.Later, not having time to convert the mineral form into organic, plants accumulate nitrates in root crops. The first sign of the accumulation of nitrates and nitrites in the root crop during overfeeding with nitrogen is the appearance of voids in the root crop.
The second beet top dressing is carried out in 15-20 days or after the second thinning. For feeding use superphosphate and kalimagnesia or potassium chloride in a dose of 8-10 g / sq. m (1 teaspoon with top). Mineral fat can be replaced with wood ash, spending 200 g per square. m area, followed by patching in a 5-8 cm soil layer.Beet.
Foliar top dressing
Micronutrient fertilizers boron, copper and molybdenum are best applied in the form of foliar liquid top dressings by spraying. Aboveground mass. You can buy a ready-made mixture of micronutrient fertilizers or replace it with ash infusion.
In the phase of 4-5 leaves, it is good to spray the beets with a solution of boric acid. Dissolve 2 g of boric acid in hot water and dilute in 10 l of water. This technique will protect beet root crops from heart rot. The finished micronutrient preparation is diluted according to the recommendation and the plants are treated.
If there are no ready-made micronutrient fertilizers, they will be successfully replaced by the infusion of wood ash. Infusion of ash can carry out 2 foliar top dressing: in the phase of 4-5 leaves and in the phase of active growth of root crops (August). The infusion of 200 g per 10 l of water before spraying must be filtered.
About 25-30 days before harvesting beets, it is advisable to sprinkle the plants with a solution of potash fertilizers, which will increase their keeping quality.
Do you want beets sweeter? Do not forget to salt it with ordinary table salt. Dilute 40 g (2 tablespoons without top) of non-iodized salt in 10 l of water and pour the beets, spending a bucket of solution per square meter. m of land area. To reduce the number of dressings, combine the salt solution with a solution of trace elements, and spray in June and early August.
Juicy root crops with delicate pulp are obtained with regular watering, especially in arid regions. The first watering is carried out with mass shoots. Water the culture 3-4 times a month. During the period of intensive development of root crops, watering is more frequent. The first sign of delay with watering is the withering of beet leaves. Beets are very fond of leaf watering. The culture does not tolerate an increase in soil temperature. From overheating, constant mulching is necessary until the leaves close. Watering is stopped 3-4 weeks before harvesting.Beet.
Protection of beets from diseases and pests
The most dangerous diseases of beets are fungal and bacterial damage to the root system and root crop. The disease is usually affected by weakened plants and mechanically damaged root crops and roots. The fight against rot (Fusarium, brown, dry) is complicated by the fact that all plant organs are used as food - root crops, petioles, leaves. So the use of chemical protective equipment is excluded. The fight is carried out by agrotechnical measures and the processing of biological products.
- Sowing is carried out only with healthy seed treated with bio-etchants. It is more advisable to buy ready-made processed and prepared for sowing sowing material.
- They remove from the field all the remains of the crop, weeds, in which fungi, bacteria and other sources of diseases winter.
- Timely lime acidified soil, providing normal conditions for the development of culture.
- They constantly monitor the state of culture and remove diseased plants from the field.
- They provide the culture not only macro-but also with microelements that well protect plants from diseases.
Of the biological products used to combat rot, planriz is used to till the soil, and phytosporin, betaprotectin, phyto-doctor, and agrophil are used to treat diseases of the aerial parts of plants.
The most common pests of beetroot are leaf and root aphids, beetroot and mining flies, beetroot shield, beetroot flea and others. Of the biological products against pests, bitoxibacillin, dendrobacillin, entobacterin, lepidocide, etc. are used.
Dilution of biological products, doses and period of use are indicated on the packaging or accompanying recommendations. Biological products can be used in tank mixtures, after preliminary testing for compatibility. Despite their safety when processing plants with biological products, personal protective measures must be observed. Be careful! Biological products can cause an allergic reaction (dusting forms are mostly dusts).Beet.
Root crops must be harvested before the onset of frost (late September - first half of October). Beet harvesting begins when yellowing leaves. Frozen root crops are poorly stored and in storage are affected by fungal rot and other diseases. After harvesting, the root crops are sorted, separating absolutely healthy ones. Cut the tops, leaving stumps up to 1 cm. Healthy root crops are dried and laid for storage. Storage temperature is + 2 ... + 3 ° С. Storage methods are diverse: in boxes with sand, sawdust, dry peat; in plastic bags, in bulk, etc.
- Part 1. Beets - useful properties, varieties, varieties
- Part 2. Agricultural technology for growing beets