Garden

Grape propagation by grafting

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  • Part 1. Grapevine born to give immortality
  • Part 2. Features of vineyard care
  • Part 3. The vine must suffer. Pruning
  • Part 4. Protection of grapes from fungal diseases
  • Part 5. Protection of grapes from pests
  • Part 6. Vegetative propagation of grapes
  • Part 7. Grape propagation by grafting
  • Part 8. Groups and grape varieties

Each grape variety has its own unique bouquet: the color of the berries, their aroma, taste, sweetness, unusual acidity and other properties. In a small summer cottage it is impossible to grow all the desired grapes and hybrids of grapes, but it is possible to propagate them by planting several varieties on one bush and getting the so-called family bush.

Vaccinations are also necessary for the cultivation of varieties resistant to various diseases, especially to soil aphid phylloxera, which for many centuries has been the scourge of vineyards. Vaccinations are used in the reconstruction of damaged vineyards and their rejuvenation or replacement with higher-yielding and high-quality ones. But, you need to remember that vaccination is a kind of surgical operation when one plant is artificially implanted in another.

In order for the vaccination to be successful, take root and begin to form crops, all work must be carried out in a timely and high-quality manner. Haste will not give positive results. Beginning winegrowers often invite specialists for vaccinations, but you can also plant grapes yourself using the simplest types of vaccinations. Vaccination is a very interesting and effective method, which is easy for a beginner to learn to grow.

Grafting on grapes.

Types of grafting

The variety of vaccinations is quite significant. At the place of execution, they are divided into underground and aboveground. The execution time is divided into winter (desktop) and green, performed, as a rule, during the growing season of the grape bush.

Winter table vaccination performed in the winter from January to March indoors sleeping cuttings. It is carried out by specialists or experienced winegrowers.

Green vaccination It is carried out on living plants from May (when the vine loses brittleness) until August and is divided into spring, summer and autumn. The stock in this case is the mother bush itself or its shoots with a thickness of at least 6-8 mm. Rooting is not required and with a successful vaccination, after a year you can try a new variety of grapes. When forming a family bush, remember that not all vaccinations take root, the taste and color of the berries may slightly change.

Methods of green grape grafting

As a stock of green vaccinations, a standard, a cornstamb or a multi-year sleeve is used. Vaccinations are also carried out on a separate vine of the current (green shoot) or last year (black shoot) in different combinations. Varieties of this vaccination are performed by a pre-prepared graft-shank (black graft, black stalk) or a green shank from the selected bush graft.

The main methods of vaccination. a) Simple replication; b) Improved replication; c) Spread

According to the technology of implementation, the most common green vaccinations are:

  • half-split, half-split,
  • end to end
  • butts with a vine,
  • simple copying
  • improved copulation,
  • eye budding and others.

Preparation of grape grafting tools

In specialized stores you can buy the necessary tools, including knives (grafting, for budding, garden, splitter). Before you buy a tool, try a few modifications and choose your hand. The main rule when choosing - the tool should be convenient, not beautiful. The best knife is a tool whose blades are made of carbon steel. The knives must be very sharp in order to cut (do not chew) with one movement. The correct sharpening while maintaining the initial angle is usually performed by a specialist.

Tool for vaccination.

In addition to tools, it is necessary to prepare the banding material in the form of synthetic ribbons from polyethylene, wide twine. It should be soft, but tight enough to fit the vaccination site, not to let moisture pass. It is best to purchase a special winding (grafting) tape, which contains substances that accelerate the process of growth. This self-destructive film does not need to be removed after the vaccine is fused. Paraffin is needed if the vaccine is to be waxed, a few clean wipes, a piece of film, a piece of hard burlap, loose toilet paper or natural cotton wool, alcohol or another tool disinfector, wooden supports.

Grape Vaccination Period

Vaccination in the spring is carried out when the buds on the stock are only swollen and the active allocation of the apiary is over. Summer and autumn vaccination can be performed in any period of warm time without bright sun and dew. In the south until October inclusive. In the middle lane no later than the temperature of the soil drops to + 10- + 12ºС, and air + 15ºС.

Grape Vaccination Technology

Consider some of the simplest vaccinations that you can do at home on your own. Over time, gaining experience, it will be possible to learn how to perform more complex vaccinations, if necessary.

For beginners, for self-fulfillment, it is possible to recommend vaccinations with a split, in a half-split, a simple copulation, a green eye in the vine, a handle (green or black).

Grape inoculation in full split

This vaccination can be performed on the underground and ground parts of the bush in the southern regions in the spring in the second half of April – early May or in autumn in early October. In shelter vineyards, it is carried out in such a way that when shelter does not break off the vaccine and or freeze it in winter.

Full split vaccination.

Rootstock preparation

  • To perform vaccination on the underground part of the stem, we remove the aerial shoots. We dig earth around the stem. The pit should have a diameter of at least 50 cm and a depth of 25-30 cm. If the bush was grafted, cut off the grafted part of the stem. If it was root, remove the upper 5-10 cm portion of the stem.
  • The remaining stump is also freed from the soil by 5-8 cm, cut off the surface roots, offspring. Rigid burlap remove the remains of soil and old bark on a stump. We take the soil so as not to interfere with the vaccination process. We cover it with a film.
  • At the stump we make a repeated smooth cut (very important) along the internode, 3-4 cm above the knot. If necessary, carefully clean the saw cut place. Any roughness or soil particles will subsequently cause various fungal and other diseases. We cover the prepared stock with a film.

Scion preparation

The grafted cuttings are prepared from autumn and until spring are stored wrapped in plastic on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator. 2-3 days before vaccination they are checked for safety. Live overwintered cuttings in a longitudinal section are green in color. Cuttings are soaked in water for 1-2 days and before grafting cut into 2 eye-short grafts. The upper section of the scion is made 1-2 cm above the eye, and the lower section is 4-5 cm below the eye (on the internodes).

Inoculating grapes in a full rasp

  • Open the film on the prepared stock.
  • place the knife-splitter or chisel in the center with the point down and with light strokes we split the stump 3-4 cm deep so as not to split the lower node on the stem.
  • At the lower end of the 2 eye scion, on the side of the lower eye, 0.5-1.0 cm in step, we make oblique slices with a wedge down. Wedges are performed with one movement of the hand. They should turn out to be unequal. On the one hand, the depth of cut exposes the core, and on the other, it captures only wood. The length of the wedge should be approximately equal to the length of the splitting and also be 3-4 cm. You can not touch the cuts with your hands so as not to introduce an infection.
  • The slit of the split is pushed apart by the plastic protrusion of the grafting knife and the scion is inserted into the formed gap closer to one of the sides of the split with the lower eye outward, and the second also, only closer to the other end. If the stem is thin (3-4 cm), then only one graft is placed.
  • When placing the scion in the cleft, insert it a little deeper than the rootstock bark so that the cambium layers coincide. With such an in-depth insert, the layers of cambium of the scion and rootstock will coincide, and the vaccine will grow faster and better.
  • We fill the gap between the cuttings with wet pieces of loose toilet paper or natural cotton wool.
  • The vaccine is tightly tied with a grafting tape or twine, completely isolating from external influences. Grafting winding ends below the level of splinter.
  • The scaffolds along with the vaccination site are covered with a film bag or a case and not very tight (need aeration) at the bottom we attach to the stem. We remove the film bag in 20-25 days, as soon as 2-5 cm shoots develop from the kidneys.
  • On the sides of the scions we install supporting wooden pegs. Carefully fill the hole with moist sawdust (not coniferous) and the ground, covering the grafted grafts with a mound of 4-6 cm high.
  • If the grafting is done at the soil level or the stem depth is 5-10 cm lower, then, having fulfilled all other conditions, it is possible to vaccinate, do not cover with soil, but be sure to mulch the near-stem site with a film, fixing its edges with a ground roller.
  • When carrying out grafting on the aerial part of the stem, the grafting site must be isolated with a film cap from the environment, and mulch the soil under the bush so that it is constantly wet.

Post Grafting Care

  • If the vaccine is covered with soil, then carefully open each 1.5-2.0 weeks and cut off the shoot that has appeared on the stock and roots on the scion and stock.
  • A sprouting sprout germinated for 15-20 days must be covered from direct sunlight. We open the protective screen on cloudy days or at night.
  • We do not allow the formation of soil crust and the growth of weeds.
  • Further care for the young grafted vine is the same as for ordinary young grapes.
  • If the grafting does not begin to develop within 1.0-1.5 months, then the vaccine has died.

Simple grape copying

Duration of copying

Copying in translation means connection. This is the simplest type of vaccination, which is carried out by combining oblique sections of the scion and stock. It is most convenient to carry out copulation in the spring-summer period.

Copulation in the southern regions on green shoots is carried out in the 2-3 days of May, when the shoots reach a diameter of 7-8 mm and begin to lignify. Until mid-June, it is more expedient to carry out the copulation with lignified (wintered in the refrigerator) cuttings, and from the second half until the end of June - green scions. Such specifics of scion selection allows to obtain a higher percentage of survival and successful ripening of a new vine.

Vaccination with simple copulation

Copy Technique

  • Watering the grape bush abundantly to enhance sap flow.
  • On the selected bush, we select last year’s 2-3 shoots of the desired thickness and cut into 2-3 eyes.
  • For early vaccinations, we remove the prepared cuttings from storage, cut 2 kidney segments and soak for 12 hours in warm water (+ 20- + 25ºС). We leave it on a wet litter in a warm, humid room (greenhouse or simulated greenhouse in a room). After 3-4 days, we select live scions.
  • For summer vaccinations, we harvest green shoots of the current year of the same diameter as root shoots. The stem of the scion is cut from the lower tier of the selected variety immediately before inoculation. We clean it from leaves and antennae, without harming the eyes, and place the lower end 4-5 cm into the water.
  • We choose the place of copulation on the rootstock shoot in such a way that in the future it becomes the sleeve of the stem. All shoots, stepsons and leaves from the stock to the place of vaccination are removed.
  • On rootstock and scion we make oblique sections 2-3 cm long with one movement of a sharpened knife.
  • With the advent of the apiary on the cut of the stock, we combine both parts so that the layers of cambium coincide. Holding the combined components tightly with a bandage (we bind) the place of grafting with grafting tape or other dense material. The harness is the most difficult element of the vaccination, since the shifted layers of tissue will make engraftment impossible. If the strapping is done correctly, then after a while at the upper end of the grafting apiary will begin to stand out.
  • The place of vaccination is covered with a film for less evaporation of moisture (imitate a small greenhouse) and covered with light material from the sun.
  • After 7-10 days, the scion begins to grow. Gradually remove the greenhouse and release the vaccine from the harness. To prevent the vaccine from breaking off, be sure to tie the young shoot to the support.

Having mastered these simplest types of vaccinations, you can learn the rest in the process of improving your skills.

  • Part 1. Grapevine born to give immortality
  • Part 2. Features of vineyard care
  • Part 3. The vine must suffer. Pruning
  • Part 4. Protection of grapes from fungal diseases
  • Part 5. Protection of grapes from pests
  • Part 6. Vegetative propagation of grapes
  • Part 7. Grape propagation by grafting
  • Part 8. Groups and grape varieties

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