Garden

Pest Protection

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  • Part 1. Grapevine born to give immortality
  • Part 2. Features of vineyard care
  • Part 3. The vine must suffer. Pruning
  • Part 4. Protection of grapes from fungal diseases
  • Part 5. Protection of grapes from pests
  • Part 6. Vegetative propagation of grapes
  • Part 7. Grape propagation by grafting
  • Part 8. Groups and grape varieties

The vine is damaged by pests, which can reduce productivity by 30-40%. Pests settle on the living vegetative organs of the bush, damage the antennae, leaves, young shoots, roots and berries of the crop. Most pests are common to grapes and horticultural crops, and therefore, easily switch from fruit crops to vine bushes (the little bears, grubs, ticks, aphid, kidney-eaters other). However, unlike other crops, grapes are also affected by root aphids, a specific insect that lives only on the underground parts of the plant. For grapes root aphid or phylloxera - The most dangerous quarantine pest.

Phylloxera

Phyloxera means aphid devastator. In a short time, a microscopic insect can cause irreparable harm to vineyards. Its root forms are especially harmful. Having appeared in Western Europe, the worst phylloxera crisis of the 60s of the XX century hit wine producers of grapevines. Many ruined French winegrowers, settled accounts with life, without even waiting for the complete death of the vineyards.

A phylloxera-affected grape leaf.

Phyloxera damages the aboveground and underground parts of the vine. Quarantine severity is associated with the fact that, in order to pass a certain development cycle, aphids winter on the underground organs of culture, including the roots. To feed the larvae of the root phylloxera, space is needed for movement. Therefore, the root form of phylloxera is particularly rapidly propagated on the roots of the vine, cultivated on breathable loose soils. Compacted, poorly permeable to water and air soils are not suitable for root aphids. She does not settle on the roots of vineyards cultivated on sandy soils.

Hatching larvae stick to the roots, pierce the integumentary layer and suck out the plant juices. The female of the aphid root form during the growing season forms 6–9 generations, laying up to 400 eggs each time. The bark tissues, under the influence of saliva enzymes phylloxera, ulcerate, tumor-like bursts grow, where soil bacteria and fungi penetrate. Rotting of the root system begins. After 4-5 years, the bush dies.

Phyloxera grape, or Aphid Ravager on the roots of grapes.

The leaf form of aphids damages the aboveground mass of garden, garden crops and vineyards, settling mainly on leaves and young shoots. When the leaves of the grapes are damaged, galls (swelling) are formed on the underside, in which aphid larvae develop. The maximum reproduction of aphids occurs in August-September. In case of untimely protective measures, the aphid is able to reduce the yield on grape plantations by 20-30%.

Ways to protect against phylloxera

Preventive measures of protection are the purchase of planting material of only zoned varieties, and grafted only on phylloxera-resistant stocks. Buying from unfamiliar growers in temporary markets can cause phylloxera to infect healthy grape bushes.

With self-administered vaccinations, all sanitary requirements must be observed when performing vaccinations. The best stocks are considered: Riparia Gluar, Cober 5BB, Riparia x Rupestris 101-14. The root system of these stocks in places of aphid punctures is not amenable to putrefactive processes. The bush continues to grow and develop normally, forming for a long time high yields of good quality.

An opened gall with egg laying and phylloxera larvae.

Of the chemicals for leaf forms, phylloxera is effective Fastak, BI-58, Actellik, Confidor, Decis, Alatar, Karate, Inta-Vir and others, which must be used strictly according to the instructions. The first treatment with drugs is carried out in the first triad of May in the phase of development of 1-2 leaves, the second in the third with the deployment of 12-14 leaves on a young shoot, the third no later than the second half of June. In the rest of the period, if protection against August aphids is necessary, it is necessary to switch to protective measures with the use of biological products that are harmless to humans and animals.

Of the biological products with a wide spectrum of action on the pest complex, Lepidocide, Entobacterin, Fitoverm (aversectin), Iskra-bio, Agravertin, Akarin are recommended. The use of biological products is allowed until the start of the ripening of the crop.

Grape itch

Grape itch or felt mite is a fairly common pest of vineyards. The pest is called a felt mite for the formation on the lower side of the sheet of hollows covered with a white dense coating that resembles felt. Typical tubercles appear on the upper side of the leaf - the habitat of the tick.

Top side of leaf damaged by Grape Itch, or Felt Mite.

Wintering occurs at the base of the kidneys or under the upper integument. With the onset of warm weather and the beginning of bud growth, the itch moves to the buds and leaves. During the growing season it is reproduced by 10-12 generations. Hybrids are often affected by felt mites. As a result of damage to leaf blades, photosynthesis is disrupted. Leaves turn brown or reddish. Bunches of grapes are not damaged by itching, so all protective measures are carried out mainly before flowering.

The underside of a leaf damaged by Grape Itch, or Felt Mite.

Anti-itch measures

The first treatment is performed before budding, by spraying with nitrafen. The solution is prepared at the rate of 200 g of the drug per 10 liters of water. After the mass budding of the kidneys, one can carry out dusting with ground sulfur or prepare a solution from a mixture of 100 g of colloidal and 60 g of wettable sulfur in 10 l of water and carefully spray the plants. Spraying with chemical and biological products against leaf phylloxera will simultaneously destroy other pests with a sucking mouth apparatus.

Spider mite

When the leaves bloom, another kind of ticks joins the itch - a spider mite. Tick ​​females winter in trellis, under the old bark of the vine. As the temperature rises to +20 - + 25ºС, the females become more active and pass to young leaves, where they settle on the lower side. During the summer period they give up to 12 generations, laying each time up to 100 eggs. Damaged leaves also acquire a brown color over time, as with a felt mite. But the spider mite begins its destructive activity on the veins of leaves: central and lateral. Actively sucking off the juice, it causes yellowing of the leaf blade along the veins and the leaf dries out with a brown color. The growth of shoots slows down, the berries lose productivity and quality.

A plant affected by a spider mite.

Spider mite control measures

Control measures include spraying with a 3% solution of copper or iron sulfate before budding (coincides with the treatment against diseases). During the growing season, they use the same drugs for treatment as anti-itch. In addition, in the ripening phase of berries, sulfur pollination can be additionally carried out. After pollination in a day it is already possible to harvest. The same drugs act on the spider mite as on the above pests. So with one treatment you can destroy several types of sucking pests.

Leaflet

Leafworms actively destroy buds, flowers and grapes. They are divided into 3 types: bunch, biennial and grape. Grape caterpillars mainly damage the vegetative organs, and biennial and bunch - inflorescences, young ovaries and berries.

Leafworm Protection Measures

Control measures begin in early spring. Perennial sleeves and shtamb of bushes are cleared from the old lagged bark. Leafworms winter there. All waste is burned. When the air temperature rises to +12 - +15 ºС, the first years of butterflies pass, which are placed on the buds after 10-12 days of egg laying. After 1.0-1.5 weeks, voracious caterpillars hatch from eggs. Caterpillars pupate. Butterflies of the second generation emerge from the cocoons, which lay their eggs. After about 2 weeks, second generation caterpillars hatch. In this period, spraying is repeated. For spraying, BI-58 chemicals are used, as well as the entire set of drugs used against aphids and ticks.

Caterpillar of grape leaflet. A bunch of grapes struck by a caterpillar of a two-year-old leaflet. Grape brush affected by a caterpillar of a bunch of leaflets.

After harvesting, the bushes are sprayed with 2% Bordeaux liquid for prophylactic purposes, and after the leaves have fallen, the bare bushes and the soil beneath them with 3% copper or iron sulfate. During the growing season, it is necessary to change the preparations when processing the vineyard, so that there is no getting used to the composition. It is most advisable to use tank mixtures for spraying, combining drugs against diseases and pests, which will halve the number of treatments for the vine.

  • Part 1. Grapevine born to give immortality
  • Part 2. Features of vineyard care
  • Part 3. The vine must suffer. Pruning
  • Part 4. Protection of grapes from fungal diseases
  • Part 5. Protection of grapes from pests
  • Part 6. Vegetative propagation of grapes
  • Part 7. Grape propagation by grafting
  • Part 8. Groups and grape varieties

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