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Vegetative propagation of grapes

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  • Part 1. Grapevine born to give immortality
  • Part 2. Features of vineyard care
  • Part 3. The vine must suffer. Pruning
  • Part 4. Protection of grapes from fungal diseases
  • Part 5. Protection of grapes from pests
  • Part 6. Vegetative propagation of grapes
  • Part 7. Grape propagation by grafting
  • Part 8. Groups and grape varieties

The vine, like other plants, has the ability to reproduce in a vegetative and seed way. With home breeding, seed propagation is practically not used. Therefore, we will focus on the methods of vegetative propagation, which is carried out by cuttings (green vertical, summer, winter), layering, offspring and vaccinations.

The basis of vegetative propagation is the restoration of a whole plant from individual organs without using or using artificial stimulation of growth and development of the separated part. Vegetative propagation by cuttings and layering can be called cloning, as they repeat the properties of the mother plant in everything.

Vine.

Selection and storage of winter cuttings

The main purpose of reproduction is to obtain a larger number of plants with excellent varietal qualities of the mother plant: productivity, fruit quality, frost resistance, etc. Of course, you can buy ready-made seedlings with the above properties, but no one will guarantee that you sold exactly the seedlings that you need . Therefore, it is better to independently propagate the desired grape varieties.

The ability to vegetative propagation in the vine developed in the process of evolution. All parts of the grape plant have acquired the ability to form roots (petioles of leaves, stems of inflorescences and berries, root segments), but only the shoots themselves form (restore) the entire mother plant. The kidneys, which are formed in the bosom of the leaves located on the nodes of the vine, are responsible for the full restoration of the new organism. These kidneys are called axillary, as well as wintering or eyes. It was they who acquired and consolidated the ability to regenerate all the organs of the mother plant.

To get a healthy new plant, you must follow a few rules:

  • The selection should be conducted only from an absolutely healthy mother bush with good indicators of yield, fruit quality, resistance to diseases and damage by pests, high ability to form a new root system on a vegetative shoot.
  • In the autumn preparation for cuttings, we select shoots with a diameter of 7-10 mm, which have been fertilized this summer.
  • It is better to harvest cuttings from shoots located on the knot of substitution or in the middle of the fruit arrow.
  • We remove all vegetative organs from the separated vine (antennae, leaves, stepsons, green unripe apex).
  • Cut the cuttings with a length of 2-4 eyes. We cut off the lower part of the handle, stepping back 2-3 cm from the lower eye at an angle of 45 *. The top is cut obliquely with an inclination from the kidney, 1.5-1.0 cm indent.
  • In the lower part of the handle, we inflict small wounds, cutting the bark in 2-3 places. It is better to scratch the wounds with a thin needle. Vertical stripes (to the cambial layer) will accelerate root formation.
  • Cuttings are placed in a container with water for 10-15 hours, then for 1-2 hours in a solution of copper sulfate for disinfection (3-4%).
  • We dry it in air and, wrapping it in film, place it in storage.
  • You can store cuttings until spring on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator, in the basement or cellar. During the lock, we necessarily monitor the safety of the cuttings, turn them upside down.
Cuttings of grapes.

Rooting of winter cuttings

  • In early February, when the cuttings are in a forced rest, we remove them from storage and monitor the safety. If a drop of liquid appears when pressing on the cross-section with the blunt end of the secateurs, then the handle is alive. If water drips without pressing, the stalk decays when stored improperly.
  • Live cuttings are soaked for 1-2 days in warm water, constantly replacing it with fresh.
  • For 2-3 days, lower the end, lower the cuttings into a container with a rooting agent solution (root, heteroauxin) for 20-24 hours. We leave 2-3 buds on the handle, cut off the rest.
  • Prepared for vegetation, cuttings are planted for rooting one at a time in bottles from under mineral water, cutting off a previously narrowed upper part or into tall plastic glasses.

In tanks prepared for rooting at the bottom, we poke several holes with an awl for drainage and water flow during irrigation. We place a drainage layer of pebbles or coarse sand. We prepare the soil mixture from forest land and humus (1: 1), pour part of it with a layer of 5-7 cm for drainage.

The soil is carefully compacted and watered. In the middle of the mixture in a glass, cuttings are planted to a depth of 4-5 cm, and in a bottle so that the upper kidney (eye) is at the level of the upper part of the container. We supplement capacities with a layer of steamed sawdust or other material. Cover on top with a plastic glass. Pour warm water through the pan daily or after 1-2 days. We put the container with the landed cuttings in a pan with water for 15-20 minutes. When young leaves develop from the eyes and young roots become visible at the transparent walls, the young seedling is tempered for several days. The rooted cuttings are called root-saplings and are ready for planting for permanent.

Rooting cuttings of grapes.

Some growers, in order not to bother with containers for rooting, are easier. Digging a trench to the depth of cuttings, watered. After water has been absorbed, a layer of 8-10 cm of prepared loose soil mixture is poured into the bottom of the trench and the cuttings are planted, deepening them by 4-5 cm. They are covered with another layer of the soil mixture, watered again with warm water and completely cover the cuttings with soil mixture, forming a mound on top. Watering is carried out once a week, with warm water in a thin stream (the soil cannot be washed away) along the edge of the trench. When shoots with leaflets appear above the mound, then the cuttings are rooted. Some growers in the same year they are planted permanently, others are left for transplantation next spring.

Propagation by green cuttings

Green cuttings are harvested at the beginning of flowering when conducting pinching and the debris of extra young shoots. Cut off shoots must be immediately put into the water with the lower end. Then from each shoot only from the lower and middle parts we cut the cuttings with 2 leaves and 2 buds located in their sinus and return them to a bucket of water. In green cuttings, we make the lower cut oblique under the lower knot, and cut the top into a stump, leaving a distance of 1.0-1.5 cm above the upper knot. Place the cut cuttings in the lower part for 7-8 hours in a root or heteroauxin solution. Cuttings in solution are at air temperature + 20- + 22 * ​​С and in diffuse lighting. Before planting in the rooting container, remove the bottom sheet with part of the petiole, and cut off 1/2 of the leaf blade at the top.

Cuttings are planted in prepared boxes after 5-6 cm or 1 each in plastic cups to a depth of 3-4 cm. We prepare the soil mix the same as for rooting winter cuttings. We shade the planted cuttings, creating greenhouse conditions + 22- + 25 * C with high humidity. Spray the cuttings 2-3 times a day with warm water. We free them from shading when they start to grow. We temper and transfer to normal living conditions. We grow all summer in the original capacity, for the winter we place it in the basement or cellar. In the spring, after wintering, we land by transshipment in a large container (it is possible in a bucket) and in September we transplant for permanent.

Propagation by vertical layering

Reproduction by vertical layering is carried out directly on the mother bush. This method is more suitable for varieties with enhanced root formation. All shoots are cut in the spring for 2-3 eyes. The bush is fed and watered. Cropped shoots grown up to 25 cm are viewed. Remove weak, underdeveloped doubles. Leave only strong, well-developed. Left shoots are spudded by 5-10 cm with a specially prepared soil mixture of soil, sand, humus (1: 1: 1) with the addition of 10-15 g of nitrophosphate. 50 cm of shoots are again spudded with soil mixtures to a height of 30 cm. The grown shoots are minted, leaving shoots above the swollen surface of 20-25 cm. Throughout the summer period, the mother plant with young shoots is spudded, weeds are harvested, fed, watered, minted 2-3 times a summer so that nutrients are more actively used for root formation. By autumn, roots develop in the earthen part of the shoots. After the leaves have fallen off, the soil is scooped up and young rooting seedlings are carefully separated by secateurs. Small stumps remain on the mother plant, which will give new shoots next year. Cut cuttings are laid in the basement or cellar for storage and in the spring they are planted for permanent.

Rooted grape stalk.

Propagation by horizontal layering (Chinese method, Chinese layering)

The method is very simple, fast. It is more successfully used on varieties with fast root formation.

  • In the spring, when the soil in the root-inhabited layer warms up to + 14- + 15 * C on the bushes of an open grape bush, a shoot overwintered (with live buds after spring frosts) is selected along with a number of swollen buds. In a shelter vineyard, this procedure is performed after opening the bushes.
  • A groove is dug along a row along the entire length of the selected shoot with a depth of 10-12 cm. The bottom of the grooves is loosened by 0.5 shovels and seasoned 3-5 cm with a soil mixture consisting of equal parts of soil, humus and sand. Watering abundantly, but without stagnation of water in the groove.
  • The vine in the internodes inflict the largest longitudinal wounds (with an acute awl), without touching the eyes. Each node with a kidney (eye) is a future bush with roots.
  • The prepared vine is neatly laid along the groove, pinning wooden slings to the soil.
  • The end of the shoot is bent up and tied with an eight to a wooden support.
  • The vine is covered with the remaining soil mixture, slightly compacted, watered again and mulched.
  • The site is kept clean during the summer, all weeds are removed in a timely manner. Watered systematically after 10-12 days. Watering is completed in the 2-3 days of August.
  • The shoots that emerged from the underground nodes are tied to supports (necessarily wooden, so as not to burn on hot metal).
  • The shoots are minted several times during the growing season, leaving a vine no longer than 50-70 cm.

After the leaves fall, carefully dig out the vine and determine:

  • if the rooted shoots on the vine are weak, then they are again spudded with a knoll and left for the winter. In the spring they cut them for 2-3 eyes, grow them during the summer and in the fall or next spring they plant them permanently,
  • if strong shoots with a good fibrous root system have formed by autumn, the vine is cut into individual root-growing seedlings and stored in a basement or cellar until spring. With the onset of heat, they are planted in open ground for growing or immediately planted for permanent
  • if a cold winter is expected, and rooting is weak, then the whole vine is separated from the mother bush and, without cutting into parts, is placed in the basement for storage. In the spring, cut into pieces and planted for growing.
  • Part 1. Grapevine born to give immortality
  • Part 2. Features of vineyard care
  • Part 3. The vine must suffer. Pruning
  • Part 4. Protection of grapes from fungal diseases
  • Part 5. Protection of grapes from pests
  • Part 6. Vegetative propagation of grapes
  • Part 7. Grape propagation by grafting
  • Part 8. Groups and grape varieties

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