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Groups and grape varieties

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  • Part 1. Grapevine born to give immortality
  • Part 2. Features of vineyard care
  • Part 3. The vine must suffer. Pruning
  • Part 4. Protection of grapes from fungal diseases
  • Part 5. Protection of grapes from pests
  • Part 6. Vegetative propagation of grapes
  • Part 7. Grape propagation by grafting
  • Part 8. Groups and grape varieties

The distribution area of ​​the vine grows every year. On the territory of the Russian Federation and the CIS there is no cottage, even in fairly cold regions where grapes would not be grown at home. Industrial grape growing and home-grown for their families are significantly different. The industry needs high yields, which are obtained, thanks to various agricultural practices, including the use of large doses of fertilizers, herbicides, chemicals from diseases and pests, and other events.

The main requirements for country viticulture are reduced to the ability to grow a grape culture without the use of chemistry. That is, they must be varieties sufficiently resistant to diseases and pests, productive, frost-resistant, characterized by high taste qualities of berries. Most often, at home, table or universal grapes are grown, which can be used fresh for preparing winter stocks.

Grape groups

According to the field of use in the food industry, the vine is divided into technical, table, universal and raisin (or raisin) seedless varieties.

Cultivated grapes (Vitis vinifera).

Of technical grape varieties receive wine materials, which are used for the manufacture of a variety of wines and juices. The main requirements for the quality of products of technical varieties and hybrids are a high juice content in berries and a sugar concentration, an insignificant amount of pulp and a thinness of the peel of the berries, resistant to tearing. As a rule, they should be distinguished by high palatability, and much less requirements are imposed on their appearance. Therefore, unlike canteens, clusters of technical varieties are smaller in mass and berries are much smaller.

Table grape varieties usually grown for fresh consumption. For such varieties, the appearance, taste, color, aroma of the berries, the consistency of the pulp, the mass of the bunch and berries are important. Some table varieties and hybrids form clusters of 40-48 cm and weighing up to 2.5 kg. Their color scheme serves as a true decoration of the festive table.

Universal grape varieties with equal success are used fresh and in the form of drinks (juices, compotes, wine).

Stand out group rape varieties grapes. Raisin varieties are used both fresh and for drying and further use both directly in food and in cooking, confectionery and other areas of the food industry.

Influence of factors on the quality of vine production

The length of the growing season is important for grapes, the determining factor of which is the full ripeness of the berries. The ripeness factor is determined by the number of days from the appearance of the kidneys to the full ripening of the berries. On this basis, early, middle and late varieties with a transition period are distinguished (early ripening, mid-ripening, early middle, mid-late and others).

Early grades the grapes are already giving their first harvest for 90-125 days, medium for 120-155 day, and late grades The harvest ripening period takes more than 150-165 days and falls at the end of September and later. For home breeding, it is best to use early and medium varieties and only in the south can you have 1-2 bushes with late berries. They are usually laid for winter storage, which is due to the biological characteristics of the berries: fleshy flesh, dense peel, covered with a waxy coating that protects against fungal infections, good keeping quality.

Grapes of Labrusca (Vitis labrusca).

For home viticulture, product quality is very important. And they depend on a number of natural and agricultural factors. To ensure the continuity of delicious and very healthy berries on the table, you need to choose varieties with different ripening dates - from mid-July to October. Therefore, you need to be very careful about vine requirements for growing conditions.

  • You can not plant grapes in low places with poor ventilation. Grape bushes will be constantly damaged by diseases, and the crop will not have time to ripen and accumulate the necessary amount of sugars. The berries will be sour, with no specific taste.
  • The vine is not demanding on soils, but only on loose, breathable, fertile and well-warmed can it reveal its best qualities - it will retain the characteristics of the variety (taste, aroma), provide high sugar accumulation (20-26%) and yield healthy berries. Heavy, compacted soils with low air and water permeability and high salt content, dramatically reduce the growth and development of the vine. Low yields are formed, often with an undefined bouquet and overly sour.
  • Grafted vineyards are more effeminate than root. Grapes positively refers to the high content of calcium in the soil. However, in most rootstocks and grafted varieties, the increased content of lime in the soil causes calcareous chlorosis. That is, the best for grafted vineyards are neutral soils with optimal salt content. In the nearest soil laboratory, you can analyze the soil to make sure the selected area is suitable for the vineyard.
  • When choosing varieties for a home vineyard, it is necessary to focus on zoned varieties with a pronounced resistance to frost, temperature extremes and other manifestations of soil and climatic conditions. When choosing grafted seedlings, you must definitely pay attention to the stock and scion. Find out which group the stock belongs to, its resistance to disease. Resistance of the scion to diseases and pests, the duration of the growing season and the full maturation of the vine.
  • Before you buy seedlings, you need to familiarize yourself with their economic and technological characteristics, varietal characteristics, see how different varieties develop from neighbors. What are the quality indicators of berries (appearance, color, aroma, keeping quality and other properties).

Types and biological characteristics of the vine

Beginner growers usually buy seedlings ready for planting. But over time, gaining experience in caring for the vine, having received positive results from the methods of vegetative propagation, they proceed to vaccinations. To get the desired product from a vaccine you need to know the biological characteristics of stock and scion. This knowledge will help you select the necessary components and get seedlings with the desired properties.

Grapes coastal (Vitis riparia).

The grape family includes 11 genera, including the genus Vinograd (Vitke or Vitis), most famous for amateur winegrowers, subdivided into 3 large groups.

North American Grape Variety Group

North American, which is characterized by increased frost resistance. Representatives of the group Coastal Grapes - Vitis Riparia (Vitis riparia), Labrusca grapes - Vitis Labruska (Vititis labrusca) in our regions are widely used as direct producers and as a stock crop, which has a number of valuable properties (frost and phylloxera resistance) to produce new grape varieties suitable for cultivation in the northern regions. Of the hybrids, the best are Clinton, Beta, Noah. As a result of hybridization with Cultural Grapes - Vitis Vinifera (Vititis vinifera) received Isabella, Concord, Lydia, early Moore, Canada and others. It should be noted that Isabella, Noah, Lydia are well propagated by cuttings and form high yields with a good crop quality, which is very convenient for home breeding.

East Asian Grape Variety Group

The East Asian group is represented mainly by the species Amur grapes - Vitis Amurenzis (Vititis amurensis) with high frost resistance. He is one of the most northern types of grapes. Starts and ends the growing season in the coastal region at + 6 ° C, and endures winter frosts down to -40 ° C without damaging the perennial vine. It is used independently and as a starting material for hybridization with North American varieties in order to obtain frost-resistant varieties and hybrids grown in areas with frequent freezing of the root system and varieties resistant to phylloxera. A distinctive feature of Amur grapes is the early ripening of the vines and entry into a dormant period with unripe berries. This feature allows him to grow and form a crop in the northern regions. But varieties based on it do not suffer from a lack of moisture and a high content of active lime in the soil. Varieties are easily and quickly propagated by cuttings, layering, grafting. By crossing Amur grapes with representatives of the North American group, highly frost-resistant varieties were obtained: Russian Concord, Buytur, Northern Black and others.

Euro-Asian Grape Variety Group

The Euro-Asian group, the most common in our regions. The most significant species in national economic use Cultural Grapes - Vitis Vinifera (Vititis vinifera) Varieties of this species when vaccinated with representatives of the North American group give a high yield of grafted material used for propagation. Varieties and hybrids are highly resistant to phylloxera (soil aphids on the roots of grapes), fungal diseases, and are quite frost-resistant. Form a powerful vine with a good yield. Their disadvantage is chlorosis, due to the low resistance to increased content of active lime in the soil. From this group, we can distinguish varieties of the Western European group, growing mainly in the southern area: Aligot, Chardonnay, Pearl Szabo, Serafimovsky, Don Agate, Arcadia, Valiant, Augustine, Talisman and others.

Amur grape vineyard (Vitis amurensis).

Recommended grape varieties

Based on the biological characteristics of the characterized vine groups, varieties and hybrids were developed for different regions of Russia and the CIS. The grape growers of each region can be selected for several varieties with different early maturity and create a continuous line for producing delicious berries for a long period of time.

For northern areas Today it is possible to recommend varieties of cover grapes obtained on the basis of the Amur group with an early ripening period (110-125 days) and frost resistance up to -25-35ºС: Riddle Sharov, Far Eastern-60, Timur, Elegant very early, Crystal, Early Russian, Black Sweet. Less frost-resistant varieties (up to -25ºС) - Veronica, Pretty Woman, Souvenir and others.

For Moscow region and middle regions Grape varieties Timur, Muscat Delight, Agate Donskoy, Isabella, Alpha, Lydia are well established. I must say that Isabella and Lydia can be grown as non-covering, the rest of the varieties and hybrids - only under shelter.

In the Central Black Soil Region and Southern Russia magnificent in home viticulture in sheltered soil and overtaking viticulture of open ground Pearls Saba, Muscat of Moscow, Cardinal, Madeleine Anzhevin and others.

Furmint is a grape variety. Pinot gris is a grape variety. Saperavi is a grape variety.

The largest variety of wine, table and raisins and hybrids developed for growing in the southern habitat. Of seedless and sultanas varieties in home viticulture, early and super early varieties can be recommended: Russian Korinka, Black Korinka, kishmish hybrids (black, oval white, Jupiter, Long-awaited and others). Resistant to short frosts, to certain diseases, form high yields with excellent quality products of table varieties and hybrids Aladdin, Cardinal, Kodryanka, Laura. Original Black is worthy of special attention - it is resistant to root and vine diseases, to pests, which is important when starting to care for grapes for beginners. Universal varieties are excellent: Suruchensky white, Violet early, Augustovsky and wine Chardonnay, Pinot and others.

The main thing is, if you decide to start a vineyard, then you need to carefully study the varieties and hybrids grown specifically for the conditions of your area. And choose those with whom you can provide appropriate care and agricultural technology. Otherwise, the grapes will not live up to your expectations.

Attention! We ask you to write in the comments on this material which grape varieties you grow. Please do not forget to briefly describe the advantages and disadvantages of these varieties in addition to the name, and indicate in which region you grow them. Thanks!

  • Part 1. Grapevine born to give immortality
  • Part 2. Features of vineyard care
  • Part 3. The vine must suffer. Pruning
  • Part 4. Protection of grapes from fungal diseases
  • Part 5. Protection of grapes from pests
  • Part 6. Vegetative propagation of grapes
  • Part 7. Grape propagation by grafting
  • Part 8. Groups and grape varieties

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