Garden

Dates of planting vegetables for seedlings for different regions

Pin
Send
Share
Send


For lovers of home gardens, the pre-summer season begins. A future crop of favorite vegetable crops is being laid, which in cold regions can be grown only through seedlings. How to set the optimal time for sowing seeds in order to timely receive and plant healthy seedlings in open ground or in a greenhouse? Experienced gardeners by trial and error, many years of experience quite accurately set for themselves the dates of sowing seeds of different crops for seedlings. Beginners in growing seedlings can take advantage of our recommendations.

Please note that the dates for sowing seeds for seedlings in the material are indicative. For more accurate calculations, use the methods described in the material: "Calculation of the timing of sowing seeds of vegetable crops for seedlings."

Seedlings of vegetable crops.

Vegetables, as a rule, owe their origin to continents and countries where a warm frost-free period lasts almost all year round and crops manage to complete their entire development cycle in the open ground. In Russia, only the south of the country belongs to such regions, where the warm season with a sufficient amount of active positive temperatures lasts about 180 days a year (Table 1).

The main territory of Russia includes regions where the sum of positive temperatures, the length of the warm period, the timing of the onset of the warm season and the first frosts differ significantly from those required for vegetable crops. Namely, the period of the year depends on these indicators, when it will be possible to sow the seeds of vegetable crops for seedlings, and then - in open or protected ground.

Table 1. The onset and duration of the frost-free periodby regions of Russia

Name of region / zoneNumber of frost-free days per yearThe beginning of the frost-free period, dateThe beginning of autumn frosts, dateNote
Southern regionsAbout 180April 10thOctober 10thAll vegetable seedlings are planted in open ground.
Central Black Earth RegionAbout 130May 10September 20Vegetable seedlings are planted in open ground. Early - under temporary shelter.
Middle zoneAbout 90June 10th10 SeptemberVegetable crops with a growing season of not more than 80-85 days are planted in open ground. Earlier planting is carried out in greenhouses or temporary shelters are used.
Ural and Siberian regionsAbout 65June 15thAugust 20Some cold-resistant vegetable crops are planted in open ground, the first time using temporary shelters.
Far EastAbout 120May 20September 20The duration of the frost-free period ranges from 90-170 days. Spring frosts end on May 10-30, and autumn frosts occur on September 15-30.

In the northern regions and in the central zone of Russia, the number of frost-free days ranges from 65 to 90 days, which limits the receipt of vegetable products through cultivation in open ground, especially those crops whose growing season exceeds 90 or more days (Table 2). In cold regions, vegetable products of crops with a long growing season can be obtained only through seedlings, which 1/3, and sometimes 1/2 of their growing season will grow and develop in artificially created greenhouse conditions.

Table 2. The vegetation period of some vegetable crops

CultureVegetation period
Early tomatoes65-80
Medium Tomatoes80-130
Late tomatoes100-150
Eggplant90-150
Bulgarian pepper80-140
Cucumbers60-90
Head salad40-70
Late cabbage180-190

The long warm period of the southern regions does not exclude the use of sheltered soil for growing vegetable products through seedlings in greenhouses. But in this case, the main goal is the year-round receipt of products for commercial purposes for sale or the earliest products - for the market and the family.

Vegetable seedlings

Table 3. Estimated dates for sowing vegetable seeds for the southern regions of Russia and the CIS

Name of cultureSowing seeds for seedlings, dateThe appearance of seedlings, daysSeedling age (from seedlings to planting), daysLanding, date
Early tomatoesFebruary 25 - March 54-645-50April 25 - May 10
Medium TomatoesMarch 1 - 104-855-60May 10 - 15
EggplantFebruary 5 - 108-1070-85May 1 - 20
Bulgarian pepperFebruary 5 - 108-1070-85May 1 - 20
CucumbersApril 10 - 152-425-30May 10 - 12
Early White CabbageFebruary 10 - 154-645-55March 25 - April 5
White cabbage averageMarch 20 - 254-635-40April 30 - May 5
Zucchini, zucchini, squashMay 1 - 104-520-25May 25 - June 6

Breeding new varieties of vegetable crops, breeders always "tie" to the climatic conditions of the region or district. This makes it possible to develop a variety that is brought up and accustomed to the weather deviations of the area. The approximate or approximate date of sowing is always indicated on the package with seeds and in special zoned catalogs of varieties and hybrids of vegetable crops.

For precocious crops, the approximate timing of sowing seeds for seedlings (broccoli, head of lettuce, cucumbers and other crops) has a large run-up, which involves several crops at a certain time interval, in order to increase the period for obtaining fresh garden products (Table 4).

Table 4. Estimated dates for sowing vegetable seeds for the Central Black Earth Region of Russia

Name of cultureSowing seeds for seedlings, dateThe appearance of seedlings, daysSeedling age (from seedlings to planting), daysLanding, date
Early tomatoesFebruary 25 - March 54-645-50From April 20 - 25 under shelter
March 10 - 25May 25 - June 10
Medium TomatoesMarch 1 - 104-855-60May 20 - 25
April 1 - 10June 1 - 10
EggplantFebruary 10 - March 158-1060-70May 05 - 25 (Shelter required in bad weather)
Bulgarian pepperFebruary 10 - March 158-1070-80May 05 - 25
March 20 - April 0560-65May 25 - June 10
Cucumbers (for the greenhouse)April 05 - 302-427-30May 01 - 25 (subject to soil warming up to + 12 ° ะก).
Cucumbers (for open ground)May 01 - 152-427-30From June 05 (Provided that the soil warms up to + 12 ° C; temporary shelter may be required).
Early White CabbageMarch 01 - 152-445-50April 15 - May 10
Late White CabbageMarch 25 - April 154-635-40May 10 - 25
Zucchini, zucchini, squashApril 25 - May 154-625-27May 20 - June 10 (When warming the soil more than + 12 ° C).
Common pumpkinMay 05 - 254-525-30May 25 - June 15 (Provided that the soil is warmed up at least + 11 ° C).
BroccoliMarch 01 - May 254-535-40April 25 - June 30 (Sowing in several terms. Temporary shelter will be required for the first landings).
Head saladMarch 15 - July 204-535-40April 20 - August 20 (Sowing in several terms. Temporary shelter will be required for the first landings).

The timing of planting seeds of vegetable crops for seedlings in cold regions are given taking into account the emergence of seedlings. If in the south seedlings appear on 3-10 days, then a slow warming up of the soil in the northern regions prolongs the time of emergence of seedlings to 20-35 days, which accordingly affects the readiness of seedlings for planting in the ground.

Adhering to the recommended timing of sowing seeds for seedlings, it is necessary to focus on changing weather conditions in the area. If the spring is early, sowing can be carried out 5-10 days earlier than the dates indicated in the indications. With a cold lingering spring, the sowing is postponed to a later date. Accordingly, the date of landing at a permanent place will also be rescheduled (tab. 5, 6).

Seedlings of lettuce.

Table 5. Estimated dates for planting vegetables for central Russia

Name of cultureSowing seeds for seedlings, dateThe appearance of seedlings, daysSeedling age (from seedlings to planting), daysLanding, dateNote
Early tomatoesMarch 10 - April 155-745-50June 1 - 10
Tomatoes medium and lateMarch 11 - 205-765-70June 5 - 15
Bulgarian pepperMarch 11 - 2012-1465-75June 5 - 10Until June 5 in the greenhouse
EggplantMarch 21 - 3110-1260-65June 5 - 15Until June 5 in the greenhouse
Head saladApril 21-303-535-45June 11 - 20
CeleryFebruary 12 - 2012-2075-85May 21-30
Zucchini, squash,April 11 - 203-525-30May 21 - 31
May 10 - 15June 10th
CucumbersApril 25 - 302-425-30May 25-30In a greenhouse without technical heating
May 1 - 10June 1 - 10
CauliflowerMarch 15 - 254-645-50May 21-30
White cabbage, earlyMarch 15 - 254-645-50May 21-30
White cabbage, mediumApril 25 - 304-635-40Landing after an early cabbage

Table 6. Estimated dates for planting seeds of vegetable crops for seedlings for the Urals and Siberian regions

Name of cultureSowing seeds for seedlings, dateThe appearance of seedlings, daysSeedling age (from seedlings to planting), daysLanding, dateNote
Early tomatoesApril 1 - 57-945-50June 5 - 10Depending on the regions of the region, sowing of seeds can be carried out from February 20 - March 22. The date of disembarkation will also change.
Tomatoes medium and lateMarch 10 - 225-765-75June 5 - 15
Bulgarian pepperMarch 10 - 2012-1550-70June 5 - 10
EggplantApril 5 - 1012-1655-60June 5 - 15With greenhouse cultivation, the sowing date is February 10 - 18.
Head saladApril 25 - 304-535-40June 5 - 10
CeleryFebruary 25 - 2812-1575-85May 25-30
Zucchini, squash,May 10 - 204-525-30June 5 - 10
CucumbersApril 25 - 303-427-30May 25-30
Cauliflower, broccoliMarch 5 - 105-645-50May 25-30
Early White CabbageMarch 5 - 105-645-50May 25-30
White cabbage averageApril 25 - 305-635-40June 1 - 10

You can clarify the finished tabular material on the timing of sowing seeds for seedlings according to the data of the regional centers, because the regional average sowing period can vary in sowing dates up to 1 month due to the vast territories of the region with different climatic conditions. If we take into account the climatic features of each locality in the region, then the terms used by practitioners for sowing seeds and planting seedlings may not coincide significantly with the table material.

In cold regions, when growing seedlings, you can use another general indicative period for sowing seedlings. To grow vegetables in a greenhouse, seedlings must be ready for planting on May 10-20, and in open ground - not earlier than the frost-free period, or on June 10-15.

Planting seedlings in open ground

Table 7. Estimated dates for planting seeds of vegetable crops for seedlings for the regions of the Far East

The Far Eastern Federal District includes 9 constituent entities of the Federation, of which only a few can cultivate vegetables in sheltered or open ground under temporary shelters. The frost-free period in the region ranges from 90-170 days. The best areas for growing vegetables are Primorsky Krai, Khabarovsk and Amur Regions. The table shows the timing of sowing seeds of the main vegetable crops and the approximate timing of planting seedlings in protected ground or open ground under temporary shelters.

Name of cultureSowing seeds for seedlings, dateThe appearance of seedlings, daysSeedling age (from seedlings to planting), daysLanding, dateNote
Early tomatoesMarch 1 - 257-955-60May 1 - 25Under shelter
Tomatoes medium and lateMarch 20 - 305-765-75June 10 - 25
Sweet pepperMarch 1 - 1510-1260-80May 25 - June 10Landing in open ground after warming the soil to + 15 ° C and air not lower than + 20 ° C.

In some varieties, the germination period can be 14-20 days. The date of disembarkation will also change.

EggplantFebruary 25 - March 1012-1660-70From May 20With greenhouse cultivation, the sowing date, taking into account the late shoots, can be postponed for 10-12 days. The date of planting seedlings will also change.
CeleryFebruary 25 - 2810-1575-85May 25-30Planted in open ground at air temperature + 8 ... + 10 ° C.

Given the late emergence, the date of disembarkation in the soil can be postponed for 10-12 days.

Zucchini, Zucchini, PumpkinMay 15 - June 104-625-30From June 15
CucumberApril 1 - 155-625-30May 25-30In a greenhouse or under cover
Cauliflower, broccoliMarch 10 - March 255-645-60 (color), 35-45 (broccoli)May 25-30Under shelter
Early White CabbageMarch 10 - 155-645-50April 25 - May 30Under shelter
White cabbage averageMarch 20 - April 205-635-45April 25 - May 25Under shelter

Today, breeders offer a huge selection of varieties whose planting dates for seedlings vary widely. Errors in determining the time of sowing seeds can lead to planting too young or overgrown seedlings in a permanent place. Most clearly, the sowing time for seedlings is calculated taking into account amendments to local temperature characteristics. You can use the calculation methods to clarify the timing of sowing seeds and planting seedlings in the soil, given in the article "Calculation of the timing of sowing seeds of vegetable crops for seedlings."

Attention! Please write in the comments on this material when you sow your vegetables for seedlings. Do not forget to indicate the culture, region and planting conditions (open or protected ground). Thanks!

Pin
Send
Share
Send