Garden

Dates of sowing the main garden crops in the open ground

Pin
Send
Share
Send


At the summer cottage, a wedge is surely reserved for garden crops, the bulk of which are vegetable. Each culture is distinguished by its biological characteristics that have formed in the climate of the range of origin. The main condition for the successful cultivation of vegetable crops in an unusual environment is the sowing period associated with the temperature of the soil and air, the brightness of lighting and the duration of daylight hours. The article suggests familiarizing yourself with the approximate dates for sowing the seeds of the main vegetable crops in open ground for regions with different climatic conditions.

Spring sowing vegetables in the open ground.

Determination of soil temperature by the physical condition of the soil

This method is often used by experienced gardeners. A handful of earth is squeezed into a lump. If liquid comes out on the surface of the lump, it is too early to sow, and the lump has scattered - the early ones are sown. Fell, but scattered on lumps - you can start planting early cabbage and potatoes, salads, radishes.

Sowing vegetable seeds in early spring in the open ground.

Lighting is the second most important indicator of the start of sowing

In the complex of main conditions, the following is light. It is regulated by a much larger list of requirements: sowing dates, air temperature, standing density, timely thinning, destruction of tall weeds that obscure the plants.

Each type of plant under natural conditions normally grows and develops at a certain length of daylight.

For some crops, daylight hours do not affect the germination and development of plants. Such crops can be sown almost throughout the entire warm season. Others - quite painfully react to changes in lighting. Breeders, introducing new varieties, always accustom them to the climatic conditions of a particular area and, accordingly, recommend indicative planting dates, the observance of which is mandatory.

Cultural groups reacting differently to lighting

Neutral The cultures of this group practically do not respond to the amount and period of solar energy received. These include peas, beans, some varieties of tomatoes and cucumbers, as well as watermelons, asparagus and others. The list is constantly updated by breeders who “instill” the ability to not respond to daylight hours to new varieties and hybrids.

Short day. In the conditions of a shortened day (10-14 hours), plants bloom faster and proceed to fruiting. These are certain varieties and hybrids of tomatoes, beans, cucumbers. The same group includes other pumpkin (zucchini, pumpkin, squash), corn, sweet and bitter peppers, eggplant. A group of greens (dill, parsley, lettuce, spinach, sorrel, onions on a green feather) quickly goes on to bloom (flowering).

Long day. Plants of this group with a sufficient duration of illumination (more than 14 hours) go to the phase of flowering and fruiting. This group of plants includes all types of cabbage, radish, rutabaga, radish, northern varieties of turnip, parsnips, carrots, peas, and beets. If you create long-day plants for a short day, using early sowing or dimming, their development will be inhibited. They will not be able to go to the phases of flowering and fruiting. They stop at the formation of lush rosettes of greenery (vegetative organs).

Shoots of vegetables sown in the spring in the open ground.

Dates for sowing vegetables in open ground

Early spring crops (mid-March - mid-April)

This group of plants is composed of low- and medium-demanding light crops. Sowing early spring greens and vegetables can be done in stages, after 10-12-15 days, which will extend the receipt of fresh produce.

List of crops for sowing at a soil temperature of 7-10 cm layer within + 3 ... + 5 ° C.

  • Green (gingerbread) - dill, parsley, coriander, fennel, parsnip, mustard, celery, asparagus, lemon balm and others.
  • Leafy vegetables and with aerial crop formation - all kinds of salads, horseradish, spinach, rhubarb, peas, early cauliflower, broccoli, early-ripened white cabbage.
  • Bulbous and root crops - onion sevok and onion chernushka on feather and onion, early carrots, radishes, radishes, turnips, rutabaga.

Mid-spring crops (mid-April - second decade of May)

If the spring is cold and wet, the sowing is postponed to a later date (5-8 days). Like cold-resistant, these crops can also be sown in stages, after 10-12-15 days, which will extend the receipt of fresh produce.

When the soil is heated in the root-inhabited layer from + 5 ° С, it is possible to continue sowing some low- and medium-demanding crops to the conditions of solar supply.

List of crops for sowing at a soil temperature of 8-15 cm layer within + 5 ... + 8 ° C.

  • Green - celery leaf, petiole, root, salad chicory.
  • Vegetables - all types of cabbage: medium white, red cabbage, Brussels, Savoy, kohlrabi and others. Potatoes are planted early, medium, leek, spring garlic. Sow onion sets and beans, beans. Closer to May, sugar vegetable corn and sunflower are sown.
  • Root crops: beets, medium carrots.

Late spring crops (last decade of May - mid-June)

Sowing vegetables in open ground is carried out in the third decade of May-June, when constant warm weather occurs without spring return frosts. For example, in the middle zone of Russia, Siberia, in the Urals, warm weather without frost is established after June 10-15. The soil in the root-inhabited layer warms up to + 12 ... + 15-17 ° С. That is, sowing in the open ground even early cold-resistant vegetable crops shift to the forefront or early summer.

In these regions, it is more advisable to use early varieties, necessarily zoned for the local climate, to use temporary shelters and growing vegetable crops in protected ground in the autumn.

Heat-loving crops, the sowing of which is carried out at a soil temperature of 10-15 cm layer to + 13 ... + 15-17 ° C

When a stable warm period sets in, tomatoes, beans, melons (melons and watermelons), sunflowers, basil, marjoram, root vegetables (carrots, beets) are sown. Seedlings of nightshade (tomatoes, eggplant, sweet and bitter pepper) and pumpkin crops (cucumbers, zucchini, squash, pumpkin) are planted in open ground.

Thus, specialists have identified groups of plants that require a certain soil temperature, frost-free weather, the amount and duration of solar energy input for seedlings and normal development.

Spring sowing of seeds of vegetables in the open ground

Features of selecting the timing of planting vegetables in different regions

When choosing the timing of planting vegetables on your site, you need to consider that some short-day varieties need a factor of darkness, but only at the beginning of the growing season (they are shaded for this time). With age, they develop normally and form fruiting under long day conditions. If the short-day plants provide more than 14 hours of daylight hours, their development will slow down, and the vegetative mass will begin to develop intensely. This property is used in the forcing of greens to quickly obtain fresh greens and early vegetable products.

In cold regions, shifting the sowing of vegetable crops to earlier dates, it is necessary to use temporary shelters, to prepare insulated beds.

In the Far East, a special temperature regime. Vegetable growing is concentrated in the Amur Region, Primorsky and Khabarovsk Territories. Wet, warm summers allow you to take fairly high yields of cold-resistant varieties of sweet pepper and melon, bred specifically for this zone, as well as cabbage, carrots, which can be grown in open ground, sowing after June 15, that is, the crops will be pre-season.

Green products of gingerbread vegetables grown in the open field are obtained only in summer crops. In these regions, it is more advisable to use early varieties, necessarily zoned for the local climate, to use temporary shelters and growing vegetable crops in protected ground in the autumn.

Prepared high beds for spring sowing of vegetable seeds

Table 1. Sowing dates for the Southern region

Name of cropsEarly spring sowing in open ground (March 15 - April 15)Open spring sowing season (April 15 - May 20)Late spring sowing in open ground (May 20 - June 15)
Dill, fennel, parsley, celeryMarch 1-25-June 5-15
Leaf lettuceMarch 5 - April 15April 15-May 10-
Onion on feather, onion on turnipMarch 10-30from April 15-
Cucumbers-April 10 - May 10May 25 - June 15
Spring garlicMarch 1-10--
PotatoesMarch 1 - April 10from April 20 (medium-ripening varieties)-
CarrotApril 5-25;April 15 - May 30May 25 - June 10
RadishMarch 15-30--
ParsnipApril 5-10April 20 - May 10-
PeasMarch 1-30--
Sweet corn-April 20 - May 10-
Beans-May 15-20-
BeetApril 5-15April 15-30May 25 - June 10
TomatoesMarch 15-30from April 15 (medium-ripening varieties)-
Eggplant, sweet and bitter peppers-April 15 - May 20May 20-June 10
White cabbageMarch 1-25 (varieties of early ripening). March 10-20 (varieties of medium maturity).April 10 - May 20 (late ripening varieties)-
Courgettes, squash-April 20 - May 10-
Watermelon, melon---

Table 2. Sowing dates for the Central Black Earth region

Name of cropsEarly spring sowing in open ground (March 15 - April 15)Open spring sowing season (April 15 - May 20)Late spring sowing in open ground (May 20 - June 15)
Dill, fennel, parsley, celeryMarch 1-25April 15 - May 20May 20 - June 15
Leaf lettuceMarch 5 - April 15April 20-30May 20-30
Onion on feather, onion on turnipMarch 10-30April 20 - May 20May 20 - June 15
Cucumbers-April 20 - May 20May 20 - June 15
Spring garlicMarch 1-10May 11-20May 25 - June 5
PotatoesMarch 1 - April 10May 20-15May 11-20
CarrotMarch 15-30, April 5-25;April 25 - May 10May 20-30
RadishApril 5-10April 20-28-
ParsnipMarch 1-30April 10 - May 1-
PeasApril 5-15April 20-30April 20 - May 25
Sweet corn-April 20-30May 20 - June 1
Beans--May 10-30
BeetMarch 15-30April 20 - May 10May 20-30
TomatoesFrom April 15 (under cover)April 25 - May 5May 15 - June 15
Eggplant, sweet and bitter peppersFrom April 15 (under cover)April 15-25 (under cover). From May 20 to track the weatherMay 20 - June 15
White cabbageMarch 1-25 (varieties of early ripening). March 10-20 (medium ripening varieties)May 20-30 (medium-ripening varieties)May 20-25 (varieties of medium and late ripening)
Courgettes, squash-May 10-15-
Watermelon, melon-May 10-15-

Table 3. Sowing dates for the Far Eastern region

Name of cropsEarly spring sowing in open ground (March 15 - April 15)Open spring sowing season (April 15 - May 20)Late spring sowing in open ground (May 20 - June 15)
Dill, fennel, parsley, celeryMarch 20-30. Re-sowing April 10-20May 15-20May 25 - June 10
Leaf lettuceMarch 1-20. Re-sowing April 1-20May 15-20May 25 - June 15 (under cover)
Onion on feather, onion on turnipApril 25 - 10May 15-20May 25 - June 15 (under cover)
Cucumbers-May 15-20 (under cover in a warm bed)from June 15
Spring garlicApril 10-15April 15-30
PotatoesApril 1-15 (under cover). If the cold spring is April 10-15from April 15 to May 20 (under cover)from May 20 (varieties of early ripening)
CarrotMarch 20-30 (varieties of early ripening). April 10-20 (medium ripening varieties)April 15 - May 20 (varieties of medium ripening period); you can continue sowing varieties of early ripeningfrom May 25 (varieties of late ripening). May 20-25 (sowing varieties of medium maturity)
RadishMarch 20-30from May 20 (under cover due to lengthening of the day)May 25 - June 15 (under cover)
ParsnipMarch 20-30--
PeasMarch 15 - April 15from May 15 (under cover)from June 15
Sweet corn---
Beans---
BeetApril 10-20-from May 25
Tomatoes---
Eggplant, sweet and bitter peppers---
White cabbage-May 15-20 (varieties of early ripening under shelter)from May 20
Courgettes, squash--from June 15
Watermelon, melon--from June 15

Table 4. Sowing dates for Siberia and the Urals

Name of cropsEarly spring sowing in open ground (March 15 - April 15)Open spring sowing season (April 15 - May 20)Late spring sowing in open ground (May 20 - June 15)
Dill, fennel, parsley, celery-April 20 - May 20May 25 - June 15
Leaf lettuce-April 20 - May 20 (under cover)June 1-15 (under cover)
Onion on feather, onion on turnip-from May 20June 1-15 (under cover)
Cucumbers-May 20 - June 10 (in warm beds or under temporary shelter)May 25 - June 15
Spring garlic-May 12-15-
Potatoes-April 28 - May 10May 10 - June 1
Carrot-April 25 - May 20May 20 - June 10
Radish--May 25 - June 15 (under cover)
Parsnip---
Peas---
Sweet corn---
Beans---
Beet-May 15-30May 15-30
Tomatoes-April 15 - May 5 (under cover)-
Eggplant, sweet and bitter peppers---
White cabbage-May 10-15 (varieties of early ripening under shelter)From June 1 (under cover)
Courgettes, squash---
Watermelon, melon---

Table 5. Sowing dates for the Northwest region

Name of cropsEarly spring sowing in open ground (March 15 - April 15)Open spring sowing season (April 15 - May 20)Late spring sowing in open ground (May 20 - June 15)
Dill, fennel, parsley, celery-May 15-25May 25 - June 15
Leaf lettuce-May 15-20 (under cover)June 1-15 (under cover)
Onion on feather, onion on turnip-May 15-20June 1-15 (under cover)
Cucumbers--May 20 - June 10 (in warm beds or under temporary shelter). June 15th - open ground
Spring garlic---
Potatoes-April 28 - May 10 (early ripening varieties)May 10 - June 1
Carrot-April 25 - May 20May 20 - June 10
Radish--from May 25 (under cover)
Parsnip---
Peas---
Sweet corn---
Beans---
Beet--May 15-30
Tomatoes-April 15 - May 5 (under cover)-
Eggplant, sweet and bitter peppers---
White cabbage-May 10-15 (varieties of early ripening under shelter)From June 1 (under cover)
Courgettes, squash---
Watermelon, melon---

Table 6. Sowing dates for the Midland and Moscow Region

Name of cropsEarly spring sowing in open ground (March 15 - April 15)Open spring sowing season (April 15 - May 20)Late spring sowing in open ground (May 20 - June 15)
Dill, fennel, parsley, celery-May 1-10; (celery May 10-20)May 15-30
Leaf lettuce-May 5-10May 20-30
Onion on feather, onion on turnip-May 10-20May 11-20
Cucumbers-May 10-20 (under cover)May 20 - June 15 (under cover)
Spring garlic-May 10-20May 11-20
Potatoes-May 10-20May 15-25
Carrot-May 5-10May 20 - June 10
Radish-May 1-10from May 25 (under cover)
Parsnip-May 5-10-
Peas-May 5-10from June 10
Sweet corn-May 8-15-
Beans-May 8-15from June 10
Beet-May 5-10May 15-30
Tomatoes-April 15 - May 5 (under cover)-
Eggplant, sweet and bitter peppers---
White cabbage-May 1-10 (varieties of early ripening under shelter)-
Courgettes, squash-May 15-20 (under cover)May 20-30 - June 5-10
Watermelon, melon---

Dear Reader! The article provides indicative data on sowing in open ground. Regardless of the region of the country, the main criterion for sowing dates is the soil temperature, the onset of a frost-free period, and the intensity of sunlight. If you have other guidelines and approaches that justify themselves, write in the comments. This is a very interesting and necessary material for readers.

Pin
Send
Share
Send