Raspberries - a favorite berry in the country. In order for the bush to constantly form good yields of large berries, careful care is required for raspberries, especially in the spring. Spring care includes a set of procedures that must be entered into the system and performed annually. Work in raspberries, which are carried out in the form of separate raids in the spring, will not bring benefit to the beloved berry, and the owner will not be satisfied in the form of a sweet crop.Raspberries.
When to start spring work in raspberries?
Spring care for raspberries begins in the first month of spring. The set of mandatory annual procedures includes:
- hot shower;
- soil care;
- top dressing;
- pest protection;
- protection against diseases.
Hot raspberry shower
- in early March, while still in the snow, they collect the rubbish accumulated during the winter from raspberry bushes and take it out of the site (if this work was not done in the autumn);
- garbage must be burned, as pests can winter there, and half-ripened leaves can be infected with fungal diseases;
- heat the water to a boil and fill a 5 liter watering bottle;
- from about a height of 0.7-1.0 meters, raspberry bushes are watered through a spout with a diffuser.
This procedure is harmless to raspberries. Until hot water reaches the bushes, its temperature will drop to + 70 ° C and below. Such a temperature of water will not harm the sleeping kidneys of raspberries, but will cause the death of a significant number of pests, including a nematode, which cannot be eliminated by any poisons.
On average, 1 watering can of hot water is enough to process 2 to 4 bushes. If the raspberry bushes are large (10-15 branches), spend 5 liter watering can for 2 bushes.
Spring pruning raspberries
After a hot shower, as soon as a positive temperature is established, the topsoil will dry out, raspberry bushes are cut and shaped.
Regardless of the method of planting raspberries, it is more practical to trim in 2 stages.
At the first stage, weak overgrowth is removed from the ground itself, which are deflated, curved, thickened branches and stems with swelling at the base (gall midge larvae winter there). Thin out the remaining stems, leaving 6-8 stems during the cluster formation, and up to 15-20 stems per linear meter with tape (trench) planting. Thickening will lead to a decrease in yield and crushed berries.
The second stage of spring pruning raspberries is carried out when a stable positive air temperature of at least + 5 ° C is established. During this period, the buds have already been opened, the tops of the shoots of the culture started growing and it is clearly visible how the bush overwintered. The final audit removes the missing rasped stems of raspberries, the frozen tops of the stems.
In healthy stems of raspberries, the tops are trimmed to a length of up to 20 cm to get additional lateral fruit-bearing shoots, frozen ones are cut to the first living kidney. Spring pruning of raspberries is important because it creates optimal conditions conducive to the formation of a plentiful harvest, increases the duration of the fruitful period of the crop.Spring pruning raspberries.
Raspberry soil cultivation
After trimming, all residues are burned. In order not to trample the soil in the raspberry, it is necessary to lay boards, pieces of smooth slate, other litter in the aisles and work only with them, without stepping into the ranks of the raspberry.
In rows, the soil is loosened no deeper than 8-10 cm, destroying weeds, watered and mulched with a layer of up to 15 cm. Straw, compost, humus are used as mulch for raspberries. Mulching will retain moisture, which quickly evaporates under the rays of the spring sun and winds. Organic mulch is a good source of nutrients for the raspberry root system. You can not mulch moist soils with a close location of groundwater. They are only loosened after top dressing and watering.
So that the raspberry bush does not litter the new areas of the berry with a shoot, it is fenced with smooth slate, galvanized, and other materials to a depth of 15-20 cm.
When grown in cold regions, raspberries are removed from the supports for the winter, which reduces the possibility of freezing them under negative weather conditions. If a trellis or bush method was used, then after trimming and cleaning the site, they begin to garter raspberry bushes. Tapestry and stakes are most often used on large-fruited varieties.
With the trellis method of growing, the distance between the raspberry bushes remains at least 60-70 cm. The stems fan out and are located on the trellis at a distance of 10-12 cm. Each stalk is tied to the transverse wire in 2 places so that the top does not fall down.
When bush formation of raspberries, a stake is driven between 2 bushes and half of the bush is tied (from each stem) to each stake. With this method of garter use a stepwise pruning of stems. Each stalk is cut to a different height - 10-15-20 cm.
When growing raspberries on the supports, the plants do not obscure each other, a larger number of berries ripen at the same time, it is more convenient to harvest the fruits.
Spring raspberry dressing
Despite the annual autumn fertilization, raspberries are additionally fed in the spring. Top dressing is especially necessary for raspberries on infertile soils. Fertilize in the form of solutions or solid granular forms. Fertilizers must be applied under watering and followed by mulching with a layer of mulch at least 5 cm.
During the growing season raspberries are fed 3 times.Spring raspberry garter.
The first top dressing of raspberries is carried out immediately after the snow melts.
Usually nitrofoska, kemir, complex mixtures, and other types of mineral fat are introduced under raspberries. The rates of mineral fertilizers range from 60-80 g / sq. m. On depleted soils, fertilizer rates are increased to 80-100 g / sq. m
You can add ammonia, but preferably potassium nitrate or urea at the rate of 30-40 g / sq. m with the simultaneous introduction of wood ash at 150 g / bush. Ash contributes to the deoxidation of the soil, which is acidified with frequent use of ammonium nitrate. In addition, ash contains a rich set of micro and macro elements.
You can use organic fertilizers - humus or compost - 3-5 kg / sq. Annually or annually in the first top dressing. m
Having finished fertilizing, raspberries are watered. After absorbing water, they are mulched with humus, peat, shavings, straw, and other types of mulch. When organic fertilizers are added to the dressing, mulching with humus is not used.
The second top dressing of raspberries (phase of the beginning of the formation of the ovary) is carried out after 25-30 days.
Usually this top dressing is performed with organic fertilizers. 0.5-1.0 kg of manure or bird droppings are bred in 10-12 and 12-15 liters of water, respectively. Per linear meter, the flow rate of the solution is 2-3 liters. Despite the introduction of fertilizers in the form of a solution, after top dressing, the soil must be watered and mulched.
If organic matter was added to the first feeding, then superphosphate and potassium salt were added to the second, based on 30-40 and 20-25 g / sq., Respectively. m. area.
The third top dressing of raspberries is carried out after harvesting.
Under shallow digging (15-20 cm) row spacings make the main mineral fertilizer at 80-120 g / sq. m. area.
Since raspberries are very sensitive to moisture, there is no strict routine for irrigation. They are carried out according to the state of raspberry and weather conditions. Especially frequent and sufficient watering is necessary for raspberries during flowering and the formation of the ovary. With a lack of water, the berries are small, dry, bony. Watering is carried out along the furrows. The soil should be saturated with water up to 10-15 cm layer. At the end of watering, mulching is necessary.Drop watering raspberries.
Protecting raspberries from diseases and pests
Like all garden crops, raspberries are susceptible to diseases (powdery mildew, anthracnose, purple spotting, and others) and pest damage (raspberry gall midges, ticks, stem flies, raspberries, and others). On raspberries, it is forbidden to use chemical means of protection against damage by pests and diseases. Only treatment with biological products is allowed.
On raspberries, first of all, they use preventive measures:
- The site is kept clean of weeds, debris and other debris that can serve as a refuge for breeding and wintering of pests.
- Fertilizing, watering is carried out according to the requirements of agricultural technology, so that excessive moisture and fertilizers do not provoke diseases of a fungal and bacterial-viral infection.
Chemical treatment of raspberries
In early spring, before budding, raspberries are treated with a 3% solution of Bordeaux fluid. It is used separately from other drugs and agents.
Treatment of plants with biological products
When the buds open, during the budding phase and at the beginning of flowering, raspberries can be treated from diseases:
Drugs recommended for defeating raspberries with pests:
Bioinsecticidal and biofungicidal preparations can be used in tank mixtures according to the recommendations. The maximum effect is provided by the dilution of biological products in accordance with the instructions. An increase in concentration, as well as a decrease, will not give the expected effect during processing.