Onion of speed, or chives, from the onion family has been known in Europe as an ornamental and medicinal plant since the 16th century, in Russia as a food culture, it has been cultivated by natives since the 15th century. As a gardener, he began to occupy his niche in the family of vegetable plants of summer residents only from the 20th century. As a food product, this onion is more common in Western and Central Europe.Bow of speed, or chives (Allium schoenoprasum).
The distribution range of chives in Russia is quite significant. In the wild, it grows on inconveniences throughout the European part, in Western and Eastern Siberia, in Far Eastern Kamchatka, in the Primorsky Territory, in the North Caucasus, that is, in all regions where winter frosts cannot destroy the rhizome and false bulb with the roots of these winter-hardy plants.
And it's all chives
Translated from German, chives are literally translated as "chopped onions." In Russian regions, chives have many synonyms, which are often perceived by different locals as different cultures. Of the official names in botany, chives are called bow of speed (Allium schoenoprasum), chives (cut feather), onion sibulet. In the Asian part of Russia, chives have their local names - sogan, sokh, chali.
In some regions, chives are called Siberian onions, winter bush. It is also known under the name of tribulka and restaurant. All the above names are only synonyms for a typical chives.
Useful properties of chives
The high content of sugars (3%), vitamins (B, C, K, E, A), mineral salts and especially volatile and their positive effect on human health, include chives on medicinal plants.
The green leaves and onions of the onion of the pan contain amino acids, including histidine, methionine, tryptophan, arginine, lysine and others. Rich in chives, carbohydrates, proteins, fats, trace elements, including rejuvenating the body and boosting immunity (selenium, zinc, manganese, etc.).
From the healing properties of chives:
- stimulates appetite;
- improves secretory activity of the intestine;
- has a positive effect on the activity of the kidneys, gall bladder, cardiovascular system;
- used for the prevention of colds and infectious diseases, with progressive atherosclerosis;
- effective anthelmintic.
Using Onion Pan
Chives, like other varieties of onions, refers to green and spicy-flavor crops. Fresh as a spice is added to all vitamin salads, meat, fish and vegetable dishes. Delicate leaves that taste good, without bitterness and burning, are an integral part of baking, omelettes, sauces, gravy.
Frost tolerance allows the use of fresh green chives in temperate regions for up to six months when grown in open ground. Chives can be frozen or dried and used if necessary in the winter.
Description and characteristics of chives
Chives are a group of herbaceous plants. In the wild, it is perennial; in the vegetable wedge of private households, chives are often grown as a 1-2 year old crop. It is used as a perennial on vegetable beds, decorates rabatki.
The underground part of chives consists of small oblong false bulbs (15-20 pieces) of brownish-white or violet-red color, attached to a short rhizome. Numerous whitish roots of white color extend from the lower part, which are buried in the soil up to 0.5 meters. In the second year, each bulb forms a trihedral flower arrow and then blooms annually.
The aerial part of the onion of the pan is represented by a false stem and thin awl-shaped or tubular leaves of bright green color 25-45 cm long, 5-8 mm wide. At the base, the leaves are flattened. For a short (3-4 years) period, chives form a green bush of 50-60 cm tall, from 40-100 stems with leaves and apical inflorescences in the form of umbrella-shaped voluminous balls.
The flowers of chives are narrow-bell-shaped, in different colors from white to lilac and pale violet. Plants bloom in May-June in the second year of life and bloom until August. The fruit is a box. After pollination, small numerous seeds are formed, which ripen gradually in July-August, acquiring a black color and a slightly angularly rounded shape.
Onions and chives leaves almost taste like onions, but have a more delicate texture and aroma.
In Russia, 2 subspecies of chives are most widespread:
- Russian, or alpine.
Russian chives are fast forming powerful multi-stemmed bushes with good foliage. Leaves are tender, grow back quickly after cutting. Distributed in areas with mild winters.
The Siberian chives, unlike the Russian, are weakly branched, the leaves form large ones, which are rough during poor watering.
Both subspecies of the onions of the breed are frost-resistant. High winter hardiness is distinguished by the Siberian subspecies, which does not freeze even in the most severe winters.
Both subspecies are grown in 1, 2 and perennial culture. It is most practical to grow 3 years in one place, and then divide and plant the bushes. With this method of cultivation, chives will constantly form a large number of delicate foliage - the main products of this crop.
Shoots of chives (unlike other bows) can withstand short-term frosts to -3 ... -4 ºС. The leaves of adult plants tolerate short-term frosts without damage to the leaves at -6 ... -8 ºС.Separated onion bulbs of speed.
Choice of place for chives
Depending on the method of cultivation, the location of the future culture is determined. The main requirement is sufficient moisture and protection from direct sunlight.
If chives will be grown perennially, it is better to place it separately in a moist partial shade or to provide sufficient watering. With this location, chives will long form young tender leaves. In the sun, the leaves are coarse and unsuitable for use in cooking.
Perennials can be planted on vegetable beds along the paths like a curb plant.
In a 1-3-year-old culture, several varieties can be planted in discounts, mixborders. As a summer chives, chives are grown in separate beds in a crop rotation.
The predecessors and "neighbors" of onions
Chives do not compete with carrots and tomatoes and are considered a useful neighbor for them.
Poorly compatible with all kinds of bean plantings, peas (according to some reports - in general with legumes), cabbage, beets.
The following crops are considered to be the best predecessors when grown in culture circulation: greens, tomatoes, cucumbers, radishes, potatoes.
Chives - a good honey plant. Attracting bees and bumblebees, it contributes to the pollination of garden and berry crops.
Schnitt-onion protects some other crops from aphids, earthen and cruciferous fleas. Pests cannot tolerate chives. To protect them, chives can be sown near or along the edges of vegetable beds.
Soil preparation and chives
It is undemanding to the soil composition, but develops better and faster in fertile moist areas. It is very important to free the area from rhizome perennial weeds. They greatly contribute to the death of young chives.
If the soil is very dense, clayey, then under the planting of onions, the breeds make humus or compost in a bucket per square meter. m area for autumn digging 20-25 cm deep.
In spring, in late April - early May, ripened soil is leveled, slightly compacted and, if necessary, furrows are watered.
The scheme for sowing chives is ordinary. With long-term cultivation, seeds are sown or planted onions according to the scheme 45-50 x 25-30 cm. When sown by seeds, their seeding in the soil does not exceed 1 cm.
Shoots appear on the 7-10th day. In the case of labeled rows, the soil must be loosened to increase the access of oxygen to the roots of plants. After the formation of 1 real leaf, the plants are thinned out, leaving 1 plant per 10-12 cm. The remaining from the sample can be separately planted as seedlings.
With 1-2 year cultivation, it is better to plant chives on seedlings according to the scheme, respectively 15-20 x 4-5 cm. When planting seedlings, greens can be used in the year of planting.Seedlings of seeded chives.
When sowing onions with seeds in the first year, the soil is systematically loosened. Weed from weeds (they can drown out delicate sprouts), watered and always gently mulch with small mulch. By autumn, the dried parts of the plant are removed. Growing, chives form a dense turf, overgrown with aboveground greenery completely covering the soil. The need for loosening and mulching then disappears.
In the second and subsequent years, chives are fed for the first time after the first cut, which is performed when the leaves reach 25-40 cm in height. For top dressing, make a glass of ash per 1 sq. m area or solutions of bird droppings (1:20 l of water), manure (1:15 l of water). After top dressing, the plants must be washed with clean water.
If there is no organic matter, you can feed the plants with nitrofos, azophos or kemira at the rate of 40-100 g / sq. m area depending on the level of plant development. The second top dressing with mineral fertilizers is carried out after 2-3 cuts of greenery. By the way, the second and subsequent top dressing on fertile soils can be omitted if the growth of greenery is normal.
This culture is water chowder; it needs systematic watering. The soil should be constantly moist, but not flooded with water. If you are late with watering, chives leaves coarsen and lose their taste. In this case, coarse aboveground greenery is cut off and the soil is no longer allowed to dry out later.
Cuts of greens
In a year spend 2-3, sometimes 4 cuts. Leaves of chives are cut when growing 25-40 cm (depending on variety). The first cut is usually carried out in mid-May, and the last approximately in the second half of September so that the plants have time to grow stronger after cutting the greens.
With 1 year cultivation in cultivation, cuttings are carried out during the season, and in the spring of next year, plants are completely dug up and used for food and onion bulbs of the pan. Culture is planted with seedlings in a new place.
With long-term cultivation, digging chives is carried out for 3-5 years, using part of the plants for reproduction, and the rest is included in food.Bush of chives during flowering
Chives cannot be processed on greens with any preparations. It practically does not get sick and is not damaged by pests.
Like all perennial crops, chives are propagated by sowing seeds, planting bulbs, seedlings and dividing the bush.
Propagation of onion by seed
Seeds of chives, retain viability for 2 years, their subsequent germination is sharply reduced. With long-term cultivation, self-seeding propagation occurs, if the boxes are not cut in time before cracking. You can sow seeds in early spring in late March - early April, in July and in late September - in October.
In the first months, the plants are very tender, require careful painstaking care, abundant watering without stagnation of water. It is more practical to propagate the culture through seedlings or by dividing the bush.
Fresh seeds in the first half of March, after daily soaking in water, are sown to a depth of 0.5-1.0 cm in prepared boxes with a moist substrate. Cover with a film. Shoots appear on 3-5 days. The temperature is maintained moderate, not higher than + 18 ... +20 ° C. Gently watered. Thick sowing is thinned out in phase 1 of this leaf, but it is better to sow seeds more rarely right away.
In the phase of 2 true leaves, 50-60 day old seedlings are planted in a permanent place. Planting pattern: 35-40 cm between rows and 20-25 cm in a row between plants. In the first year, you can spend 1-2 cuts with active growth. From the 2nd year, the onion blooms. Cut greens increase to 3 - 4 per season.
Under optimal growing conditions, chives can completely cover the soil with overgrown bushes. Productivity of aboveground mass is reduced. Therefore, onions in one place are grown for 3-5 years and transplanted, dividing the bushes into several parts. After abundant watering, the bush is cut from below at a depth of 12-15 cm. Usually, for planting, the bush is divided into parts of 2-3 onions in a split. If there are a lot of chives, some of the onions are used as food.
By the way, during the cultivation of large bushes, you can safely dig up and use part of the bulbs for food. Planting and caring for dividends are the same as when propagating other plants.Bow of speed, or chives (Allium schoenoprasum).
Popular varieties of chives
In the middle lane and in the colder regions of Russia, vegetable varieties of onions are placed in open and protected ground:
- Honey plant;
- Moscow precocious;
- Vitamin snob;
Varieties of chives, Crocus, Elvi, Chemal, Bohemia and Albion are listed in the State Register of Varieties.
Varieties of chives, Bohemia and Medonos are best grown by perennials, and Chemal - 1-2 years old, taking off the entire crop the next year. By taste, Chemal belongs to spicy varieties, but is unstable to downy mildew. For an early harvest of vitamin greens, the Prague variety is suitable.
Bohemia is preferred for many years of cultivation, since it is practically not affected by diseases. Khibinsky forms beautiful inflorescences of violet shades, most suitable as a perennial. In one place for 5-7 years, forms high-quality harvests of delicate foliage.
Breeders have developed decorative varieties of onions in the pan for flowerbed and border placement:
The last 2 varieties of chives form very elegant inflorescences of white and bright pink flowers. Decorative from May to late autumn in low borders. Elvi is grown as a vegetable and ornamental crop. The variety forms white inflorescences.
Dear readers! Perhaps you have long been familiar with chives, and use it as a vegetable and as a decorative culture. Share comments on its use for medicinal purposes, in cooking and just the secrets of growing this delicious vitamin green.