Autumn is the time to harvest and prepare for the new season. The volume of spring troubles will depend on how the garden goes into winter. It is for this reason that experienced gardeners never miss the opportunity to carry out as much work as possible in the fall. Prepare the beds, fertilize. And also to plant part of the cultures. What can be planted in the winter? And onions, and greens, and root crops. This approach has many advantages: seedlings appear earlier, grow stronger, some crops manage to yield crops before their main pests are activated, the yield is obtained two weeks earlier, there is the possibility of re-planting. In this material, we consider the features of winter sowing, as well as recommendations for a number of major crops.What to plant in the winter?
General winter sowing rules
For winter crops, it is not necessary to allocate a large plot of land. If the products are not for sale, but for your table, a bed with a total area of 5-6 square meters. m. fully provide a family of 4-5 people and vitamin greens, and early root crops.
A place for winter crops is better to choose affordable, sunny, without a slope. Since the time to sow will come later (with the establishment of small frosts in the last decade of October, and in the south - November), it is better to prepare the land in advance. Back in August, fertilizers should be applied, the soil should be dug, leveled, and grooves should be done before frosts (while the top layer has not yet frozen).
There is a rule for seeding rates. Since the risk of a fall (loss) of some seeds is inevitable, the norm needs to be increased by 25-50%. Sowing seed must be dry: after sowing, never water it.
Some gardeners do not practice winter, but winter sowing. This is also possible in January and February. This method is justified where unstable autumn temperatures can provoke early seed germination. However, in this case, it is necessary to have a supply of land in order to sprinkle frozen grooves. In the southern regions, this method is replaced by sowing in January or February "windows" when the soil thaws, but still does not have time to warm up enough to give the seeds growth.
After sowing, in order to better adhesion of the surface of the seeds to the soil, it is recommended to compact the soil above the grooves. And for insulation - to mulch. In winter, you should try to throw snow on ridges. It’s early in the spring to cover them with a film stretched over arcs - this will allow the earth to warm up earlier, accelerate the germination and growth of the sown crops somewhat, protect seedlings in case of return frosts.
Dill seeds germinate already at +3 ° C, so they can be sown only with steady cooling. In the daytime it can be 0 ... +2 ° С, at night -2 ... -3 ° С.
The depth of seed placement is 2.5-3 cm. The distance between the rows is 20 cm. The seeding rate per square meter is 3-5 g. You can also apply fan sowing on the surface, mixing the seeds with sand, and necessarily mulching from above. Varieties: "Fireworks", "Hercules", "Cleaver", "Previously a Miracle", "Tenderness", "Preobrazhensky", "Redoubt", "Gribovsky", "Grenadier", "Aurora". "Drummer", "Esta" and others. Dill sown before winter will be ready for the table in mid-May.
Leaf parsley rises already at +2 ° C heat. Her shoots freely tolerate temperatures up to -9 ° C. But the seeds germinate sparsely, therefore, winter sowing is more profitable for it, especially in the southern regions. It allows parsley to gain time and begin a more friendly growing season.
The depth of sowing seeds is 1-1.5 cm. The distance between the rows is 20-25 cm. The sowing rate per square meter is 0.6-1.5 g. Of the varieties, it is better to take those with large leaves - "Kucheryavets", " Bordovik "," Italian giant "," Breeze "," Curly "," Ordinary leaf "," Green crystal "" Station wagon "," Astra "," Alba "," Esmeralda "," Pagoda "and many others. Winter parsley leaf crops allow you to collect the first leaves in late May. You can also pay attention to the root varieties: "Sugar", "Russian size", "Eagle".Leaf parsley rises already at +2 ° C heat.
3. Cilantro (coriander)
Good for crops in late autumn and cilantro. Her seedlings are not afraid of springtime return frosts and freely experience cold snap to -8 ... -10 ° С.
The depth of sowing seeds is 1-1.5 cm. The distance between the rows is 25-30 cm. The sowing rate per square meter is 5 g. Varieties: "Shiko", "Amber", "Debut", "Alekseevsky 247", "Taiga", "Stimulus", "Borodinsky" and others.
It is advantageous to sow lettuce before winter - an early harvest is obtained regardless of whether the spring was rainy or dry. The seeds of this culture tolerate low temperatures well, therefore, sowing is carried out with steady cooling, when the thermometer readings drop to the level of -2 ... +2 ° С.
The seed placement depth is 2 cm. The distance between the rows is 30-40 cm. The sowing rate per square meter is 0.6-0.7 g. Varieties: "Coarse-headed", "Sonata", "Moscow Greenhouse", "Vitamin", "Gourmet", "Berlin Yellow", "Rhapsody", "Dubachok", "Festival" and many others. Salad sown since autumn is ready for the table already for the May holidays.
Watercress emerges in just a couple of days and immediately begins to grow rapidly. Therefore, it is impossible to rush with winter crops of this culture - you need to wait for frost.
The seed placement depth is 1-1.5 cm. The distance between the rows is 10-15 cm, with row seeding, the distance is 20 cm between rows, 50 cm between ribbons. The seeding rate per square meter is 3 g. Varieties: "Broadleaf", "Narrow-leaved", "Curly cress".
6. Mustard salad (leaf)
Mustard leaf or lettuce is not afraid of frost, easily tolerates cooling to -5 ° C, it must be sown with the onset of the first steady frost.
The seed placement depth is 1.5 cm. The distance between the rows is 25-30 cm. The sowing rate per square meter is 2-2.5 g. Varieties: "Krastnolistnaya", "Zelenolistnaya".
Winter spinach sowing has two terms. The first is in the last days of September. Plants manage to form a rosette of small leaves, which will winter under a snow shelter. With the arrival of spring heat, they will immediately start to grow and in a week and a half from the garden it will be possible to pluck the first vitamin leaves.
The second term is in November-December (depending on the climatic zone), with the onset of stable frosts. In this case, the seeds will hatch already in the spring, which is also not bad, since the crop will give an early harvest.
The depth of sowing seeds is 3-4 cm. The distance between plants is 7-10 cm. Between the rows is 15-20 cm. The sowing rate per square meter is 4 g. Varieties: "Juliana", "Victoria", "Matador", "Universal "," Progress "," Broadleaf "," Guarantor "and many others.Winter spinach sowing has two dates: in the last days of September and in November-December.
For sowing carrots, the earth needs to settle, therefore, the bed must be prepared in advance. Sowing dates come at a thermometer in the region of + 2 ... +4 ° C.
The depth of seed placement is 3-4 cm. The distance between the rows is 15-20 cm. The seeding rate per square meter is 1 g. Varieties: "Supernant", "Alenka", "Karotel", "Incomparable", "Moscow Winter A 515" , "Fun", "Early TSHA", "Artek", "Canning", "Amstardam", "Vitamin 6", "Nantes -4", "Chantane 14" and many others.
Selective harvesting of root crops will begin in early June, but you need to remember: carrots sown in the fall are stored worse than during spring planting, so it is better to think over the necessary amount of production in advance.
You can’t hurry with sowing beets, its seeds can germinate already at +5 ° C, therefore, the dates of winter sowing must be shifted to a period of stable cooling, - 2 ... - 4 ° C.
The depth of sowing seeds is 3-4 cm. The distance between plants is 5-10 cm. Between the rows is 20-30 cm. The sowing rate per square meter is about 4 g. For winter planting varieties, it is necessary to take exclusively cold-resistant or marked "resistant to shooting ": Egyptian flat", "Podzimnaya flat", "Darynya", "Podzimnaya A 474", "Thekla", "Cold-resistant 19", "Bordeaux 237", "Podzimnaya incomparable", "Detroit", "Red ball" and other
The first harvest of root crops from winter beet crops can be carried out already in late May and early June. But such beets are stored worse than during spring planting, therefore it is better, as in the case of carrots, to think over the necessary volume of production in advance.
Turnips are sown before stable frosts, in about two weeks. In spring, winter sowing allows it to form before the cruciferous flea begins its attack.
Sowing depth 3 cm. The distance in the row is 10-15 cm, three seeds per nest. The row spacing is 25-30 cm. The seeding rate per square meter is 2 g. Varieties: "Geisha", "Petrovskaya 1", "White Night". Turnip sown before winter will allow harvesting to begin at the end of May and beginning of June.Turnip sown before winter will allow harvesting to begin at the end of May and beginning of June.
More often, the winter sowing of celery is applied to leaf varieties, and any of them is suitable. But among the root there is a variety ("Root mushroom"), suitable for planting in the fall.
Seeding depth 1.5-2 cm. Seeding produce thickened. The seeding rate per square meter is 0.1-0.2 g. Varieties: "Root Gribovsky", "Apple" and others.
Growing horseradish from seeds is a rarity. Basically, this culture propagates vegetatively. But, if by seeds, then winter sowing is an excellent choice!
Seeding depth is 2-3 cm. The distance between plants is 30-35 cm. Between the rows is 50-70 cm. Varieties: "Valkovsky", "Rostov", "Atlant", "Suzdolsky", "Latvian".
With crops of leeks are in no hurry. Its seedlings are afraid of frost, so the seeds are sown not earlier, when the thermometer begins to show below 0 ° C. The method is used mainly in the south.
Seeding depth 1.5 cm. The distance between plants - 8-12 cm. Between the rows - 30-35 cm. Seeding rate - 2 g. Varieties: "Karantansky", "Columbus", "Vesta", "Winner" and others .
14. Onion set and nigella
Onions are one of the crops recommended for winter planting, especially in areas with cold climates. This method gives an earlier crop and makes it higher, since, having an early germination, the culture is less affected by diseases and pests. The planting dates of onion sets are two weeks before the steady frosts, and onion-nigella - on frozen ground.
The oatmeal and the first fraction (bulb size 1.5 cm in diameter) are the best choice for winter sowing; they are planted according to the 3 by 15 cm pattern. Sevka (1.5-3 cm in diameter) 3 bulbs per nest, or densely . Bulbs over 3 cm in diameter are planted according to the scheme 8-10 by 15-20 cm.
The depth of planting of onion sets is 3.5-4 cm, black onions - 2.5 cm. It is better to take onion varieties of winter onions: Danilovsky 301, Odintsovets, Radar, Carmen MS, Stuttgart Riesen , "Shakespeare", "Myagkovsky 300", "Ellan", "Buran", "Mouzon" and many others. It will be possible to collect onions at the end of May, turnips - by the middle of the summer season.
Onion-batun can be sown in three terms per season, but sowing before winter is considered the easiest.
The depth of seed placement is 2-2.5 cm. The distance between plants is 20-25 cm. Between the rows is 40-50 cm. The seeding rate is 6-8 g. Varieties: "April 12", "Gribovsky 21", "Salad 35 "," May "and others.Sowing onions for winter onion is considered the easiest.
16. Onion tiered
Frozen to -40 ° C are not afraid of a multi-tiered onion, it is so tolerant of cold. But for this, by the time he leaves in winter, he should already have a root system formed. Therefore, multi-tiered onions are planted two weeks before frosts.
The thickness of the bulbs is 1.5-2 cm. The depth of their closure is 3-4 cm. Landing in 2-3 lines. The distance in the row is 15-20 cm. Between the rows is 30 cm. The seeding rate per square meter is 0.3-0.5 kg. Varieties: "Odessa Winter 12", "Likova", "Memory", "Gribovsky 38", "Chelyabinsk Superearly" and others.
Winter garlic is planted in two ways. The deep landing method is mainly used in areas with a cold climate. It is carried out in mid-August and implies the teeth are deepened by 10-15 cm. The usual method (traditional) is planted two weeks before a steady cooling, with the implantation of the teeth 3-5 cm deep. Its timing is the last week of September, if this is the middle band, beginning of November - in the south.
The distance between the cloves is 10-15 cm. The distance between the rows is 20-25 cm. Winter varieties: "Komsomol", "Alkor", "Messidor", "Polesskiy souvenir", "Spas", "Petrovsky", "Lyubasha", " Herman "and many others.
Radish seeds germinate well at fairly low temperatures, for this reason it is impossible to rush with sowing, delaying the time of planting at the end of November.
Seeding depth is 2-3 cm. The distance between plants is 4-6 cm. Between the rows is 10-15 cm. Seeding rate per square meter is from 5-6 to 10 g. Varieties: "Lighthouse", "Resistant", " Carmen "," Spartak "," Jubilee "," Pink-red with a white tip "," Heat "," Dawn "," Hussar "," Greenhouse "," Early crunch "and others. Radish sown with winter sowing is ready for table already in early May.
Parsnip is the preferred crop for winter sowing due to the short shelf life of seeds and rather poor germination. Winter crops allow stratification of its seed material and increase germination.
Seeding depth 2 cm. Row spacing - 5 cm. Between rows - 30-35 cm. Sowing rate per square meter - 1.5-2 g. Varieties: "Round early", "Best of all", "Student" .The winter crops of the parsnip increase its germination.
Fennel sown in the winter, gives friendly spring shoots. However, this culture is thermophilic, because in the fall it is more often sown in the south.
Seeding depth 2 cm. Sowing thickened. Between rows - 60-70 cm. With two-line sowing, between rows 20–25 cm is left. Seeding rate per square meter is 0.8–1 g. Varieties: “Cleaver”, “Leader”, “Aroma”, “Autumn Beauty” and etc.
Sorrel is one of the most recommended plants for winter sowing. Sown since the autumn, it earlier rises and earlier gives greens. Yes, and almost all of its varieties are suitable for such a landing.
The spout of the embossment is 1-1.5 cm. The distance between the rows is 15-20 cm. The seeding rate per square meter is 1.5 g. Varieties: "Victoria", "Belvilsky", "Spinach", "Krupnoshreshkovy" and many others.
Winter planting of potatoes is not traditional, however, it takes place, since at a depth of 10-15 cm tubers perfectly tolerate a decrease in temperature even to -10 ° C. With this technique, tubers are selected weighing 100-150 g. They are planted without vernalization. Planting time - the first night frosts, when in the daytime the ground still thaws.
The planting method is twin beds in order to be installed above the rows of arcs in spring. The width of the beds is 70 cm, the distance between the beds is 80 cm, between the rows in the beds is 45 cm, between the tubers 25-30 cm. The depth of the tubers is 15-20 cm. Planting in a checkerboard pattern. Varieties: "Zdabytok", "Nevsky", "Luck", "Lorch", "Asterix".
Winter cabbage crops are not often practiced, mainly in regions with a relatively warm climate. But for the south, there is a risk in this method - quickly emerging seedlings can freeze at unstable spring temperatures. However, recommended varieties for winter planting exist.
Varieties: "Dumas", "Hope", "Blizzard", "Dawn", "Gribovsky", "Sibiryachka", "Polar K-206".
Varieties: "Early solid stone", "Stone head 447", "Gako 741", "Early red".
Varieties: Monterey, Laser, Calabrese, Caesar, Gnome, Lucky.
Varieties: "Patriotic", "Movir 74", "Warranty".
Varieties: "Khiva 5".
The depth of seeding of cabbage seeds is 1.5-3 cm. The seeding rate per square meter is 0.1-0.2 g.
In addition to these crops, in winter you can sow asparagus, arugula, rutabaga, cucumber grass, chard, rhubarb.