Onion is a vegetable that is grown today all over the world, from the tropics to the northern latitudes. In the plant community, it is characterized by a significant diversity of species (500-600), but onions are most common. It can be grown in several ways. Usual - in a 2-3-year-old culture through obtaining onion sets or a sample of large onions. Or as an annual crop directly from seeds (nigella). In this article we will talk about the seedling method of growing onions from seeds.Growing onion turnips seedlings from seeds per season
Benefits of Growing Onions from Seedling Seedlings
In the southern regions, direct winter or early spring sowing of nigella is carried out in the soil. With this method, bulbs of early varieties and hybrids have time to ripen in 1 season. In regions with a limited warm and light period (the middle and northern strip of Russia), an annual turnip onion in open ground can only be obtained through seedlings.
The reader may have seditious thought - is it necessary to tinker with growing seedlings? Let's look at the benefits of the proposed growing method.
For reproduction, seeds (chernushka) are used, obtained by growing the uterine turnip bulb. Of these, arbazheika or onion sets are grown for the 2nd year. For the 3rd year, planting onion sets, get a full onion turnip. A very long period for obtaining a full turnip used in food. Using the seedling method of growing onions, you can annually harvest turnip onions weighing 100-400 grams (depending on variety or hybrid).
The seedling method of growing onion turnips allows you to reduce the vegetative period of plants in open ground by 50-60 days. It is of this age that seedlings are planted in open ground.
Onions belong to the group of plants with a short dormant period. It is practically impossible to preserve the harvested onion crop, especially of the early and medium grades of weakly sharp and sweet until a new crop. By January, in such varieties, both the onion turnip and onion sets sprout, soften, and begin to rot. But even if the seeds can be preserved, these varieties go into the arrow during the growing season and the turnip turns out to be defective.
The seedling method of growing onions from seeds significantly lengthens the storage period of the bulbs. One-year onions do not shoot, which contributes to obtaining a full turnip and its high-quality aging. Such bulbs can be stored for up to 9 months without germination and decay.
In addition, this method of growing onions has several more advantages over the others:
- Getting a full turnip, when comparing the prices of 1 kg of onion sets (arbazheika) and chernushka seeds, costs several times cheaper;
- They get a full-fledged crop of cheap turnips not in 2-3 years, but in one season (that is, annually);
- When grown through seedlings, the growth and development period of onions in open ground is reduced by an average of 2 months, which allows you to get a full turnip in open ground in regions with inappropriate climate (short summers, rapid onset of cold autumn, rainy or frosty weather);
- Growing onions through seedlings is a very economical way in terms of the cost of physical effort to obtain healthy plants from the appearance of shoots (loops) to an adult plant.
So, we’ll get to know better the technology of growing onion turnips through seedlings.
Varieties of onions for growing turnip onions for 1 season
To obtain large turnips for 1 season, you need to use single or low-gum sweet or semi-sharp varieties and early hybrids. Their vegetative period does not exceed 110-130 days from sowing to harvesting. In multi-germ grades, bulbs obtained during one-year cultivation are highly deformed.
Onion varieties can be recommended "Strigunovsky", Early pink, "Annual Siberian", Odintsovo, Danilovsky 301, "Amphora", "Lyubchik", "Mavka", "Veselka", "The globe" and etc.
Good yields form low-girder peninsular varieties of onions: Kaba, Karatalsky, "Krasnodar 35" and etc.
In the central regions of Russia, early- or mid-season onion varieties and hybrids provide a high-quality crop: "Chalcedony", Lukich, "Sissy", "Grandfather", Denver, "Alonso F1", Bennito F1.
Of foreign onion hybrids, it is better to use precocious Spirit F1, "Stardust F1", Red Baron, "Exhibit F1", "Candy F1", "Sterling F1", "Copra F1", Dayton F1 and etc.Onion "Strigunovsky". Onion "Karatalsky". Onion "Exhibit F1".
Preparation of soil for onion seedlings
Sowing of chernushka is carried out at the end of February, in early March, in order to plant onion seedlings in a constant place of cultivation in open ground in the second half of April.
Remember! The delay in planting seedlings in the soil will negatively affect the yield of onion turnips.
The best soil composition is a mixture of turf land and humus with the addition of sand in a ratio of 2: 2: 1. You can use a sand-humus or sand-compost (compost must be mature) mixture in a ratio of 2: 1. Instead of sand, you can use bio-vermiculite or coconut, other soil improvers.
Any mixture should be light, air- and moisture-permeable, easily shaken off the roots of plants. Natural additives in the soil mixture (turf soil, etc.) are subject to disinfection by one of the generally accepted methods. If thermal disinfection was used, then the prepared mixture must be treated with Baikal EM-1 preparations for 2.0-2.5 weeks, and Ekomik Yield is covered with a film and left in a warm place.
You can treat the soil mixture with biofungicides "Fitosporin", "Planriz", etc.
Preparing nigella for sowing
In order not to waste time preparing and processing seeds, it is more expedient to purchase them at specialized points of sale from well-known companies. Each variety has its own characteristics and requirements for life support, which affect the quality of the grown seedlings. Seeds must be packed according to requirements. Be properly labeled and explained on the back of the pack or insert.
Self-grown onion seeds must be disinfected by heat treatment or (more practical) in a solution of potassium permanganate (1 g / 1 l of water) for 0.5 hours. Instead of potassium permanganate, solutions of biofungicides Fitosporin-M, Gamair SP, Alirin B can be used for seed disinfection. After disinfection, the seeds can be soaked in Epin, Kornerost, etc.
All types of seed treatment are always carried out in warm water at a temperature of + 25 ... + 30 ° C. After treatments, the seeds must be dried by sprinkling on moisture-absorbing material. Seeds after drying should be loose. Spill prepared containers or beds with warm water and start sowing the next day in moist soil.
Do not forget to check for germinationability both purchased and independently grown seeds before sowing. It should be at least 80% (out of 10 seeds in 2-3 fold repetition, 8 pieces should be bent over a week). With lesser germination, it will be necessary to increase the density of sowing, which will affect the quality of seedlings (the amount of waste from underdeveloped seedlings will increase).
For details on how to check seeds for germination, read the article How to determine the germination of seeds?
Sowing onion seeds for seedlings
Furrows with a depth of 1.5-2.0 cm and a width between rows of 5-7 cm are cut on a flat surface of moist soil. The sowing rate is 15-20 g / sq. m square. The onion seeds spread in the grooves are covered with mature fine humus, sand or soil substitutes (vermiculite, etc.). Spilled with warm water through a fine strainer. Cover with a film and placed in a room with an air temperature in the range + 18 ... + 25 ° С.
The film is removed daily for a while to ventilate and eliminate the drop. Until seedlings are usually irrigated. But if the top layer is noticeably dried up, then gently watered through a fine strainer with settled water at room temperature. After emergence, the temperature in the room for 4-6 days is reduced to + 14 ... + 16 ° C during the day and + 8 ... + 9 ° C at night.
A decrease in temperature eliminates the extension of seedlings and the etiolated seedlings. In a subsequent period of time, the air temperature in the room is maintained within + 15 ... + 17 ° C.
Experienced gardeners advise sowing nigella in cassettes for 2-4 onion seeds per cell. Of course, it is cheaper to grow seedlings in boxes, but cassettes have their advantages. In cassettes, seedlings do not get sick, require less maintenance. It is easier to divide into separate plants before planting in the ground.When grown through seedlings, the period of growth and development of onions in open ground is reduced by an average of 2 months.
Onion Seedling Care
Seedling care is to maintain the appropriate length of daylight, timely watering, top dressing and protection from pests and diseases.
The length of daylight, depending on the age of the seedlings, varies. Therefore, for shoots of chernushki onions, it is necessary to provide additional illumination with phytolamps or other lamps.
Daylight hours after germination should be at least 15-18 hours for northern and 13-15 hours for southern varieties of onions. About 2 weeks before the seedlings are planted in the soil, the length of daylight hours is shortened to 10-12 hours. This technique will positively affect the maturation of the onion turnips.
During the growth and development of onion seedlings, watering is carried out every 2-3 days at a moderate rate (do not fill). After watering, the aisles are loosened, weed from weeds and sprinkled with dry sand or crushed humus. With overflows, excessively wet soil, seedlings are stretched, the feather wilts.
After 3 weeks, along with watering 1 time per week, onion seedlings are fed a nutrient solution of nitrophoska or other complete fertilizer at the rate of 1.5 tablespoons per 10 liters of water. It is not recommended to use one ammonium nitrate for top dressing. Mineral nutrition can be replaced with infusion of wood ash or chicken manure, using a working solution of the initial infusion diluted 10-12 times.
After 40-45 days, the seedlings begin to harden, taking daylight to the veranda or fresh air. Seedlings are protected from direct sunlight.
Protection of seedlings from diseases and pests
Onion seedlings are usually not damaged by diseases and pests. Downy mildew (peronosporosis) can affect seedlings with excessive moisture and low temperature. The main source of infection is fungal spores remaining in poorly disinfected soil.
Affected leaves are covered with oblong spots of gray, brown, black. Mushroom hyphae go into the bulbs. Infected bulbs sharply reduce keeping quality, rot, sprout quickly.
A measure of protection is spraying with a solution of antifungal biofungicides or 1% solution of Bordeaux fluid. When growing seedlings in room conditions, the use of chemicals to protect seedlings is prohibited.During the growth and development of onion seedlings, watering is carried out every 2-3 days at a moderate rate.
Planting onion seedlings in the ground
When the seedlings reach the age of 50-60 days, it is transplanted into the ground. Earlier or later planting will negatively affect the rooting of plants, mortality will increase.
Onion seedlings are transplanted in dry, warm weather in a pre-prepared garden bed. Before planting, seedlings are sorted, leaving only developed seedlings of 13-16 cm in height with 3-4 real leafy feathers of a healthy green color. If the seedlings are selected in bunches, then they are divided into separate plants. In order not to damage the roots during the separation of plants, the compacted lump of soil on the roots can be washed with light swaying in water. Underdeveloped and damaged seedlings in transplants are not used.
The seedlings selected for planting are cut to 1/3 of the leaves and roots to 2.0-2.5 cm. From mullein and clay, a mash is prepared for dipping the roots, or for some time the roots of the plants can be lowered into a solution of any root-forming agent.
Onion seedlings are planted in an ordinary way, leaving a distance of 5 and between rows of at least 35-40-55 cm, depending on the variety or hybrid (with a very large, medium or relatively small turnip bulb).
Onion seedlings are deepened into the soil by 2.0-2.5 cm, not deeper. Planted plants are crimped from all sides to remove voids in the soil around the roots and increase the area of contact. If the soil was moist, watering is carried out 2-3 days after planting. If dried, then watering, and plentiful, is carried out immediately.
After planting, the soil is mulched with any small mulch. 3-4 days after planting, you can conduct the first surface loosening so as not to damage the root system of seedlings. If all the procedures are performed efficiently, the seedlings will take root in the shortest possible time and will grow.
Outdoor onion seedlings care
Further plant care comes down to keeping the soil clean from weeds, thinning out (especially if planting was carried out in bunches of 2-3 plants in order to get fresh greenery when breaking through), watering, fertilizing and protecting against diseases and pests.
The first watering of transplanted onions in the field is carried out 15-20 days after transplantation (if the soil at a depth of 2 phalanxes of the fingers is wet). Otherwise, watering is carried out at an earlier date (after 12-14 days). Subsequent watering is carried out as necessary.
During the growing season spend 2 feeding onions. The first from May 10 to May 15 and the second in mid-June. The first top dressing is best done with a diluted working solution of wood ash or a solution of organics, spending 10 liters of solution per 10 linear meters of planting. The second - phosphorus-potassium fertilizers at the rate of 25-30 g / 10 square meters. m square. By this time, the root system will grow and capture a large area around the forming bulbs.After planting onion seedlings, the soil is mulched with any small mulch.
Protection against diseases and pests
In the field of open ground, onions are often affected by onion flies and downy mildew.
Most often, in damp weather (after heavy rains) and low, within + 12 ... + 13 ° С air temperature, onion leaves become covered with soft gray pubescence, quickly turn yellow and die. The most effective disease prevention: spraying the soil and plants with a 1% solution of Bordeaux fluid after a breakthrough or with biofungicides acting in the soil and on plants (Fitosporin-M, Gamair SP, etc.).
Dear Reader! You are offered an accelerated method of obtaining a crop of onion bulbs of different varieties and hybrids. Has this method become attractive to you? What issues remained unresolved? Is it new to you or has it been tested for a long time? Share your results with us.