Black currant, due to the excellent taste of berries, the simultaneity of their ripening, rich biochemical composition, relative resistance to pests and diseases, ease of reproduction and quick survival in a new place, has earned considerable popularity among amateur gardeners and professional farmers and is firmly in second place in Russia in cultivation areas, second only to strawberries. It is easiest to propagate blackcurrant in three ways - by dividing the bush, rooting green cuttings in the summer and rooting lignified cuttings in the fall, usually in September. Today we will consider the method of propagation of black currant in the summer way, that is, by rooting green cuttings.Propagation of black currant with green cuttings.
When to propagate black currants with green cuttings?
The main thing here is not to be mistaken, the timing very much depends on the current climatic conditions. For example, the soil is moist, nutritious, and if there is real heat, the blackcurrant cuttings can grow a little longer than usual and lay the growth point later (therefore, you should not rush to cut the shoots). In the event that it is cool, the soil is poor in nutrients and moisture, then the cuttings can quickly form a growth point, they will be trite shorter, but they can already begin to lignify. Therefore, they will need to be cut off and proceed to reproduction by green cuttings without delay.
In fact, the ideal time to start cutting blackcurrant cuttings for rooting by green cuttings is the time as soon as they begin to lignify a little (a little crunch or something), and their crown will stay and not fall if tilted. Calendar, it can be both the end of June and the beginning of July, but the author of the lines received good results even when planting green currant cuttings in early August.
Cutting shoots and cutting them into cuttings must be done in the early hours, ending before noon. In summer it’s good, it’s getting light early, you can start at four in the morning and at a normal pace of work, and if you need so many cuttings, then by lunch you will already have a couple of thousand. Immediately put them in a basin or bucket of water, so as not to dry out.Harvesting green blackcurrant cuttings.
What blackcurrant bushes to choose for cutting cuttings?
To cut the cuttings, that is, in fact, to propagate the best varieties of black currant, always first inspect the plantation, choose young bushes four or five years old, but which have already managed to give a good harvest of large and tasty berries.
By the way, you can leave these blackcurrant bushes on the mother plant, that is, do not harvest them completely, but simply cut off all the shoots in the autumn leaving growths with 4-5 buds on the surface, then the next year, exactly to the cutting of cuttings, you will be the so-called mother plant, a bush or several bushes with powerful growths, ready for cutting into many cuttings.
Important! When selecting blackcurrant bushes for cutting cuttings, pay attention to various trifles, so if the bush is severely affected by powdery mildew, then this immediately needs to be discarded. If thickenings on the kidneys, small berries, aphids or terry leaves are noticed, then such plants are sick and they certainly will not go into reproduction. Pay attention only to healthy and fully developed plants.
Chop green blackcurrant cuttings
To begin with, and no matter how surprising it may seem, you need to choose a tool, or rather two tools - a pruner and scissors. Do not skimp on either one or the other. The secateurs should be metal, sharp and well laid in the hand, the scissors should also be metal with the possibility of undercutting the blade and such that even after long work the fingers from them do not get tired and do not turn blue.
Cutting blackcurrant cuttings is usually a pleasure, because it is not gooseberry, completely studded with thorns or dogrose, which, among other things, is also poorly rooted in the greenhouse. Usually, cuttings are cut together, but you can do this alone.
As we have already said, we select the most well-developed and productive bushes and cut the maximum number of direct annual shoots from them without signs of disease and pests. Further, so that they do not dry out, we wrap them in a moist burlap and transfer them to the shade, because the sun also shines early in the morning and it can also dry precious cuttings.
After the necessary number of blackcurrant cuttings has been cut and a sufficient heap has formed, spread it out, do not let the leaves get injured, better place the shoots on the ground and cover with a wet burlap on top. After this, you can start cutting shoots into cuttings.
Important! When cutting blackcurrant shoots, always separate the variety from the variety, otherwise then you will definitely mix the cuttings. The best option is to tie large bundles of the same variety with twine and tie a label to the bundle with a piece of plastic on which the name of the variety is written with a marker.
At the institute, we do it simply - we collect, wash and cut aluminum beer cans into strips, it remains to pass rags of twine into them and the almost free label is ready. By the way, what such a label is good for is that when the pen is pressed firmly on the metal, even if the inscription is erased (the paste runs out in the pen), it will be possible to understand what kind of variety it is in the dented places and the error will be eliminated.
So, we are a little distracted, we have prepared secateurs, scissors, labels, twine for bundles, a stool to make this type of work more convenient, as well as, of course, shoots covered with a damp burlap.
To cut the blackcurrant shoot into cuttings, we remove it from the wet burlap, take the pruning shears in the right hand, and cuttings in the left hand and simply divide the shoot into parts, trying to make each length equal to 12-15 cm and have three or four internodes (then there are distances between the kidneys).
As for the slices, then, ideally, the upper and lower slices should be oblique. The upper oblique slice will help the shank to penetrate faster into the soil surface of the greenhouse, which we will tell you about later, well, water will drain efficiently from the upper oblique slice, stagnating and not decaying, but if the slices are straight, too, then there’s nothing special it won’t be terrible.
Slices themselves try to start making from the bottom of the shoot, stepping back from the very bottom sheet by about half a centimeter. Blackcurrant cuttings should be at least approximately the same size, so they are easy to sort and bundle. Usually, on each handle, only a couple of leaves are left on the crown of the handle, if it is not sluggish and fully developed. If the top of the head is sluggish, you should completely remove it, but all the same, two leaves should remain on the top of the head to reduce evaporation (below those lying down).
That's why scissors are needed, so as not to create scoring when clipping unnecessary leaves, sharp - they remove the leaves easily and quickly.A bed with green cuttings of black currant.
Preparation of blackcurrant cuttings for planting
Before planting blackcurrant cuttings into the ground, it still needs to be prepared. In the meantime, cuttings need to be sorted into clusters and varieties, respectively, bundled with twine, usually 50 bundles each, and installed in water or a solution of any growth stimulator, usually until morning.
As a growth stimulator, IMC, EPIN, Heteroauxin, Zircon, Tsitovit, Lariksi, Novosil and a whole host of similar drugs (regulators or growth activity stimulators) can be used. They like an alarm clock revive (wake) the stalk, forcing it to form roots, and sometimes growths (which is bad only for honeysuckle), and then the annual cuttings look literally like two-year-olds (they often cost the same) and have a well-developed root system.
Choosing a place for rooting cuttings
Suppose we cut blackcurrant cuttings, tied them in bundles strictly according to variety and put them in basins or other containers filled with growth stimulants. What to do next? Since we started work at four in the morning, by two in the afternoon 2500 cuttings were cut and we have a lot of free time to build the simplest arc greenhouse for rooting our cuttings.
First of all, we choose a place for our greenhouse, it is important that the soil is not very dense, clayy, that the groundwater level is no closer than one and a half meters to the soil surface, otherwise there will be saturation with moisture and rot will occur, so that the soil is not acidic and the greenhouse so as not to was placed entirely on the sunny side.
The most optimal location is east-west, when first the eastern rays illuminate the greenhouse, and then the rays of the setting sun, but not midday, otherwise it will be hot in the greenhouse for currants.
Next, I describe how I do it, and everything works out for me, although maybe there are some other ultramodern methods, but this one also gives a result close to 100%. First, I calculate the necessary area for the blackcurrant cuttings, since I cut 2500, then I make the rows so that 25 plants are placed on one, that is, 250 cuttings per square meter.
Therefore, I need to prepare only 10 square meters of the area. Knowing this, I first prepare the arcs from a rigid wire half a meter high and a width equal to the width of the bed, fastening them with welding from above and below, so that it is a single transportable structure. After the arcs are ready and the soil area is determined, you can begin to prepare it.
For good root development, it is necessary that the earth is loose and nutritious, which means that in the first layer you need to bring a bucket of humus per square meter and a tablespoon of nitroammophoska, then dig everything up very well, select a maximum of weeds, level and cover the soil with a drainage layer - this is ideal expanded clay.
The thickness of its layer is two centimeters. Next, the third layer - in fact, the main nutrient layer, in which cuttings will form. I advise you to do it like this - take a bucket of river sand, a humus bucket and a tablespoon of superphosphate and mix everything well. Further, this mixture is evenly distributed over the area so that its thickness is 10-12 cm. This is a good nutritional pillow. It is also desirable to pour a couple of centimeters of a layer of river sand on top.Mulching beds with green blackcurrant cuttings.
Watering, in addition to soil, is almost the main part of success. The leaves in the initial time of their life, about a month, should have a little moisture on their surface, and the humidity in the greenhouse itself should be maximum. How to achieve this? It’s very simple - to hold a pipe in the greenhouse, fix it almost under the very top of the greenhouse and insert nozzles into the pipe - literally fog from the water.
Since our greenhouse has a length of only ten square meters, then we need 6-7 nozzles and 10 meters of plastic pipe with a plug to the irrigation hose with a tap, no more. Nozzles are well screwed into the metal-plastic pipe, and it is already introduced into the general watering system through various kinds of puffs.
Further, two ways - either manually adjust the water supply or put the pump. What is good about manual adjustment of the water supply - if you turn off the electricity, the pump will turn into an expensive toy and the plants will wilted. Of course, you can buy a generator, but then it needs autostart sensors, in general, we will leave all these expensive toys for large greenhouse complexes.
We will most likely choose manual watering from a regular hose. I opened the tap, the water through the nozzles turned into fog and after 6-7 seconds the tap can be closed, a thin film of water is already on each leaf and soil surface. The main thing here is not to pour and not to overfill. So, if it's cold, then you can water it 4-5 times a day, if it's hot, then twice as much - the night is a break.
Planting green cuttings and shelter
Well, when everything is ready, you can carefully fold the assembled structure so that it does not interfere, and plant the cuttings according to a predetermined scheme, deepening them by one and a half or two centimeters and pressing slightly with your thumb and forefinger. Usually, it takes a couple of hours to plant 2500 cuttings of blackcurrant blackcurrant, so you can periodically close the greenhouse and, even if without covering with a film, water it.
Upon completion of the planting of all blackcurrant cuttings, it is necessary to close the greenhouse completely by lowering the structure and covering it tightly with film until mid-August, when part of the film can be raised to harden.
Important! So that the wind does not blow the greenhouse, simply weld four pins 5-7 cm long into its bases at the corners and stick them into the ground, and then after a hurricane, which happens more often, it will not suddenly appear on the roof of a neighbor's car or yours.
By the way, it is best to take a milk-colored film through which nothing is visible, I personally noticed that under such a film the plants take root much better. If during the winter it is well dried and carefully folded, laid in a warm place, then it will last more than one year.Young bush of black currant.
Instead of a conclusion
Many write that the roots on the green cuttings of blackcurrant are formed within a couple of weeks after the cuttings are planted in the greenhouse, this is so. But such a root system is not yet ready for growth in coarser soil, therefore, such cuttings are not ready for planting on a bed for growing.
I strongly advise you not to rush, wait until mid-September and already then transplant rooted green cuttings of black currant, as independent plants, to the growing bed, and after a year - to a permanent place.
To minimize damage to the root system when digging rooted blackcurrant cuttings, I advise you to use not a shovel, as many do, but forks.