Bulgarian pepper is one of the crops most beloved by vegetable growers. But it should be noted that not everyone manages to get a good crop of this crop. Let's see how it needs to be grown.Vegetable pepper.
Sweet pepper (especially red and yellow) is superior to lemon and even blackcurrant in vitamin C content! Moreover, most of the ascorbic acid is contained near the stalk, that is, in that part of the fruit that we cut during cleaning.
In pepper, ascorbic acid is combined with a large amount of vitamin P (rutin). Such a community helps strengthen blood vessels and reduce the permeability of their walls.
Provitamin A is present in peppers: daily consumption of 30-40 g of fruits stimulates hair growth, improves eyesight, the condition of the skin and mucous membranes of the body.
It is rich in vitamins B1, B2, B6 and PP, therefore, people with depression, diabetes, edema, dermatitis, as well as memory impairment, insomnia, loss of strength should definitely include bell pepper in their menu.
Under pepper, a fertile, weed-free, windproof area is secured, where cucumbers, legumes, root crops, and green crops grew before that. You can not plant pepper where potatoes, tomatoes, physalis, tobacco, as well as pepper and eggplant grew last year.
The ridges should be sufficiently fertile, well-drained and have a water-holding ability. If the soil is loamy, then on 1 m² add a bucket of rotted sawdust, 1 bucket of rotted manure and 2 buckets of peat. And if the bed is made of clay dense soil, then, in addition to humus and peat, a bucket of coarse-grained sand and a bucket of half-ripe sawdust are added to the soil.
On a peat bed add a bucket of humus and a bucket of soddy soil per 1 m². Two buckets of peat, clay soil, humus and a bucket of sawdust are added to the sand bed.
In addition to all this, a glass of wood ash, 1 tbsp. spoon of superphosphate, potassium sulfate and a teaspoon of urea. Fresh manure is not added. The soil is dug up to the full depth of a bayonet shovel. The ridges are made up to 25-30 cm high, up to 90-100 cm wide (length optional). After digging, the surface is leveled, watered with a hot (80-90 ° C) mullein solution (0.5 l of mullein mullein is diluted in 10 l of water) or sodium humate solution (1 tbsp. Liquid humate in 10 l of water), at the rate of 3- 4 liters per 1 m2 of beds or 2 tbsp. tablespoons per 10 liters of dry water "Signor Tomato", water 3-4 liters per 1 m². After this, they land.
Peppers are planted at a distance of 40-45 cm from each other with a distance between rows of 50-60 cm.
It can be planted in a square-nesting manner 60x60 cm, placing 2 plants in each well,; or 70x70 cm, with 3 plants planted pepper.
Peppers are planted in the evening. Plants are deepened into the soil to the first pair of true leaves.
During the cultivation of bell pepper, it should be noted that the leaves and shoots of the pepper are very delicate, fragile, easily break off, so when planting, do not forget to immediately put pegs on each plant for further garter.
After transplanting seedlings, the bed is closed with a clean film, which is thrown on arcs made of wire, 100 cm high from the base of the bed. If the seedlings were planted in mid-May, the bed is covered with a double film. They open the film only when a warm pagoda is established, this is from about June 15th. It’s good at night, even in the summer, to close the garden. Good results are obtained if the film is not removed from the beds at all, but only occasionally lifted from the south or west side.
When growing bell pepper, please note that after planting for 10-12 days, the plants become sick and grow slowly, so the root system takes root. To help them, it is necessary to do a shallow (5 cm) loosening (for better air access to the root system), and with watering you need to wait a bit, but so that there is no drying out of the soil.Vegetable pepper, plant.
Pour pepper before flowering once a week at the rate of 10-12 liters per 1 m² by sprinkling from a watering can. If the weather is hot, the amount of watering is increased to two. During flowering and fruiting, plants are watered under the root 1-2 times a week, 10-12 liters per 1 m², depending on weather conditions.
Many gardeners come to the site only on weekends, in which case the beds are watered at the rate of 15 liters per 1 m².
Irrigation water should always be warm (25 ° C). In no case do not pour cold water, otherwise the plants stop growing, and the flowering and fruiting periods are delayed.
Over the summer, pepper is made from 3 to 5 root dressings with an interval of 10-12 days.
Top dressing during flowering
In a 10-bucket barrel (100 l), dilute 1 kg of dry fertility fertilizer, mix well and pour 1 liter of solution per 1 plant.
- Folk dressing: in a 10-bucket barrel (100 l) lay 5-6 kg of finely chopped nettle plants, dandelion leaves, plantain, coltsfoot, woodlice (starfish), add a bucket of mullein and 10 tbsp. tablespoons of wood ash. Pour the barrel to the top with water, mixing thoroughly. After a week, a good dressing is obtained. Before feeding plants, the solution is mixed and watered 1 l per plant. The remaining solution is used on other cultures.
Fertilizing during fruiting
First squad. A bucket of mushy bird droppings is poured into a barrel (100 l) and 2 cups of nitrophoska are poured, poured with water and mixed well. 3-5 days before feeding, the solution is stirred and watered 1-2 liters per plant, or 10 tbsp. Are poured into a barrel. tablespoons of dry Signor Tomato fertilizer, mix well and pour 1 liter per plant.
12 days after this top dressing do another top dressing.
Second composition. A bucket of mullein is poured into the barrel, half a bucket of bird droppings and 1 cup of urea is poured, poured with water and mixed well. After 3-5 days, the solution is stirred and watered 5-6 liters per 1 m² or 0.5 l (bottle) of Ideal is poured into a barrel, 5 liters per 1 m² are watered.
All root dressings are done on moist soil, i.e., 2-3 days before dressing, it is necessary to water the bed with water. The temperature of any solutions should not be lower than 25-30 ° C. During flowering and fruiting of plants, in addition to liquid top dressing, the soil is sprinkled with wood ash, 1-2 cups per 1 m² of beds.
For the formation of a compact bush with well-developed lateral shoots, it is necessary to remove the top of the main stem when the pepper plant reaches a height of 20-25 cm. Nipped plants will quickly begin to branch. Of all the shoots that appear, only 4-5 top (stepchildren) are left, and the rest are removed. On the left shoots, a crop will be formed. At the same time, 20-25 fruits are left on pepper plants, and 16-20 on eggplant plants. You can not pinch, but remove extra stepchildren.
In general, step-hunting is an important stage in the cultivation of bell pepper. In hot, humid weather, stepsoning, especially of lower stepchildren, is a must, and vice versa, in hot, dry summers, plants do not stepson. At the same time, the leaf mass protects the soil under the bush from moisture evaporation.
Getting your own seeds. To obtain pepper seeds, ripened red or bright yellow fruits are taken (depending on the variety), cut them in a circle around the calyx, and then they take out the seed stalk with seeds. For several days, the seed growers are dried (3-4 days) at a temperature of 25-30 ° C, and after that the seeds are separated. They are put in a paper bag and stored in a warm, dry place for 5-6 years. Seeds are stored for up to 5 years in a paper bag in a warm, dry place.Vegetable pepper.
Varieties of bell pepper for open ground medium strip
Sweet pepper is planted separately from the bitter, as they are able to cross-pollinate, in which case the sweet pepper will be bitter.
'Prince Silver'- a variety of early ripening. Plant height 45-68 cm. Recommended for film greenhouses and open ground. Sowing seedlings in late February - early March, planted in a greenhouse in mid-May. In open ground, you can plant after the last frost, at a soil temperature of at least + 10 ° C. Fruits are conical, smooth, in technical ripeness - yellow, in biological - red. The wall thickness is 5-6.5 mm, the average weight is 85-95 g. The yield of one plant is 2.2-2.6 kg. Resistant to a complex of diseases.
'Hercules'- mid-season variety, compact plant, standard, 40-60 cm high. Recommended for film greenhouses and open ground. Sowing seedlings at the end of February, planted in a greenhouse in mid-May, in open ground - after the last frost (soil temperature at least + 10 ° C). The fruits are cuboid, smooth, dark green in technical ripeness, red in biological ripeness, weight from 120-140 g to 200 g. Wall thickness 4.5-5.0 mm. The yield of one plant is 2.5-3.0 kg. Resistant to a complex of diseases.
'Arsenal'- mid-season variety, 36-70 cm high. Can grow both in film greenhouses and in open ground. Seedlings are sown in late February, in mid-May they are planted in a greenhouse, and after the last frosts - in open ground. The position of the fruit on the plant is drooping. Fruits are conical, in technical ripeness light green, in biological ripeness - red, weighing 85-120 g. Wall thickness 4-5 mm. The yield of one plant is 2.3-2.7 kg.
'Cow ear'- a plant 65-80 cm tall with an average ripening period. Sowing seedlings in late February - early March, and planted in the greenhouse in the second decade of May. Planted in open ground after the last frost, at a soil temperature of at least + 10 ° C. Fruits are elongated-conical, smooth, dark green in technical ripeness, red in biological ripeness, average weight 115-140 g, sometimes reaches 220 g. Wall thickness 5.0-5.5 mm. The yield of one plant is 2.4-2.8 kg. Fruits can be stored for a long time.Vegetable pepper.
Diseases and Pests
Aphids are the most dangerous pest of pepper, which causes great damage to these crops. Aphids appear on leaves, stems, flowers and feed on plant juices.
- Control measures with this pepper pest: treatment of plants with rapidly decomposing insecticides (for example, karbofos or celtan) at the rate of 1 tbsp. spoon per 10 liters of water. Sprayed before and after flowering. During fruiting can not be processed. The following solution is used from folk remedies: 1 glass of wood ash or 1 glass of tobacco dust is sent to a 10-liter bucket, then poured with hot water and left for a day. Before spraying, the solution must be well mixed, filtered and add 1 tbsp. a spoonful of liquid soap. Spray the plant in the morning, better - from the sprayer.
A spider mite is another common pest of peppers that sucks juice from the underside of leaves.
- Control measures with this pepper pest: prepare a solution for which they take a glass of garlic or onion and dandelion leaves passed through a meat grinder, a tablespoon of liquid soap is diluted in 10 liters of water. Filter, separating the pulp, and spray plants in any phase of development.
These pests of pepper not only eat leaves, but also damage the fruits, which then rot.
- Control measures with these pepper pests: keep plantings clean, grooves around the planting bed pollinate with freshly slaked lime or a mixture of lime, ash and tobacco dust. When watering, try not to pour water into the grooves. In hot, sunny weather, daytime it is necessary to do loosening to a depth of 3-5 cm. Loosening the soil is accompanied by pollination with ground hot pepper (black or red), at the rate of 1 teaspoon per 1-2 m2, or dry mustard (1 teaspoon per 1 m² )
Of all the pests of pepper listed above, the Strela drug is most effective (50 g of powder is sent per 10 l, mix well, filter and spray). The solution is completely harmless to humans.
The black leg is especially pronounced at high soil and air humidity, as well as at low temperature. With this disease, the root stem is damaged, it softens, thins and rots. Often the disease develops during the growing of seedlings due to thickened crops.
- Control measures: adjust temperature and watering. In the event of the appearance of this disease, the soil must be dried, shredded and sprinkled with wood ash or dust from crushed charcoal.
The disease of wilting is manifested in dropping leaves. The cause may be fungal diseases: Fusarium, sclerocinia. If you cut a piece of the stalk near the root of the neck, then the browned vascular bundles are visible.
- Control measures: sick wilted plants are removed and burned, the soil is loosened, rarely watered and only in the morning. Next year, pepper and eggplant are not planted in this place.
Sometimes lilac shades appear on pepper fruits. This is not a disease, but a violation of the temperature regime when the air temperature drops below 12 ° C. In this case, it is necessary to shelter the plants with plastic wrap or covering material “lutrasil”.
From the black leg of wilting is sprayed with the bacterial preparation "Barrier". Take 3 caps in 1 liter of water. Spray moderately (do not rinse the plants).
Useful tips, which, among other things, will help in the fight against pests of pepper.
Insufficient pollination of flowers can be the cause of the appearance of non-standard (curved) fruits. To prevent this, it is necessary to apply artificial pollination of flowering plants. That is, in hot, sunny, calm weather, they lightly shake the plants.
Sweet and bitter peppers, as already noted, are planted in a permanent place separately from each other, that is, in different beds, since they are able to cross-pollinate, and the fruits of sweet pepper will have bitterness.
Lack of moisture in the soil, high air temperature cause lignification of stems, falling buds and leaves of pepper.
In open areas, it is necessary to protect the pepper plantings from the wind using the wings of tall plantations that are pre-planted with seedlings around the beds (these are beets, beans, chard, leeks), but they best bear fruit under the film.
Pepper is not only thermophilic and water-demanding, but also very photophilous. Therefore, shading causes a lag in the growth and flowering of plants.
Since the root system of pepper is located in the upper soil layer, loosening should be shallow (3-5 cm) and must be accompanied by mandatory hilling.
Fresh manure is not added to the bed before planting pepper, since the plants will give a strong vegetative (leaf) mass and will not be able to form fruits.
Young pepper seedlings, planted on a bed, can not withstand low plus temperatures (2-3 ° C), and autumn fruiting plants withstand frosts up to - 3C. This allows you to keep pepper plants in a greenhouse or in a garden until late autumn.Vegetable pepper.
We are waiting for your comments!