To get a full-fledged crop of currants (different colors), you should know how to properly care for this crop and in what month what should be done. This culture, by the way, requires attention almost all year round - work begins in March and ends in December, that is, a true connoisseur of currants, a caring owner has only two months of rest - this is January and February. Let's talk about what kind of work must be carried out with currants in the specified calendar period.Currants require attention almost all year round - from March to November
Currant Care in March
In March, currants are usually pruned. For this you need to choose days with a temperature of at least five degrees below zero. At this time, it is imperative to cut off all dried shoots, those that were sick, those that broke snow or wind, and all shoots that grow deep into the crown (they will certainly lead to its thickening) into a ring. All shoots must be taken out of the territory of the site and burned in order to avoid the possible infection in the soil.
Treatment against fungal infections
After pruning, in order to prevent the development of fungal infection, it is advisable to treat with copper sulfate. To do this, 100 g is diluted in a bucket of water and the above-ground mass of currant is well moistened.
Until the snow has completely melted, you can make nitrogen fertilizers. Urea is best used: 15 g of it should be evenly scattered under each bush of currant, loosening the soil in advance.
Closer to mid-March, shoots of currant can be cut for subsequent propagation and cut into cuttings 15 cm long. Cuttings can be buried in snow or put in a basement or in another room with a temperature of about zero degrees so that the buds on them do not bloom before planting.
Removal of kidney mite-affected kidneys
At the end of March, you should carefully examine the plants, especially the buds on them. If you notice that part of the kidneys is unnaturally large, round, swollen, then with a high degree of probability they are infected by a kidney tick. Such currant buds should be broken down (nibbled) and destroyed. If there are a majority of such buds, then the bush can be completely cut off, leaving only small parts of the growths with a pair of buds, or completely removed from the site.
Removal of shoots affected by powdery mildew
If you notice grayish-white spots on the tops of the shoots, then powdery mildew begins to develop, which will later switch to leaves and berries. Currant shoots with signs of powdery mildew also need to be cut and burned.
Pruning seedlings planted in autumn
In late March, you can prune bushes planted in the fall that were not pruned in the fall. In order for young plants to grow, it is necessary to cut them short, leaving parts of the shoots with two pairs of healthy and well-developed buds.
Final inspection of currant plants
Inspect the plants again - ideally, each plant older than three years of age should have about one and a half dozen well-developed shoots, no more, if there are more, then the extra ones can be removed, giving preference to the youngest.Spring rooting of currant cuttings.
April Currant Care
In April, vegetation usually begins, as evidenced by the opening buds of currant. A little later, pests, such as aphids, can already attack plants. To prevent aphids from harming buds and young leaves starting to bloom, the bushes should be pollinated with tobacco dust mixed with wood ash in equal proportions. It is preferable to water the plants by sprinkling. If every year the amount of aphids is large, then part of the slaked lime can be added to the composition.
Soil cultivation in currant stands
In April, it is time to begin work with the soil under currants. You can start by loosening the soil to remove possible soil crust. Loosen the soil to a depth of 7-9 centimeters at a distance of 50 cm from the center of the bush and 3-5 cm - directly at the base of the bush.
In mid-April, phosphorus and potash fertilizers can be added. Of phosphoric currants, it responds well to superphosphate, of potash currants to potassium sulfate. Both fertilizers should be applied to 15 g of both under one plant. It is advisable to first loosen the soil, after - sprinkle fertilizer, then lightly sprinkle the soil with humus.
As soon as the plants begin to actively develop, you can once again enrich the soil with urea - 10 g under the currant bush. If the soil by that time has dried out sufficiently, then it must first be loosened and moistened, and after applying urea, mulch with humus.
Planting currant plants
This month is also very suitable for planting currant plants. It is advisable to catch before the buds on the seedlings bloom.
Planting of lignified currant cuttings
In April, you can also begin to plant the previously harvested lignified currant cuttings. It is advisable to plant them on a bed with loose, well-dug up soil, deprived of weed vegetation with fertilizers previously added to the soil: a humus bucket and 12 g nitroammophoski per 1 m2.
Blackcurrant cuttings are planted obliquely, at an angle of 450 with an orientation to the north, cuttings of colored currants are planted without tilt. Cuttings are buried in the soil so that a couple of healthy kidneys are on the surface, after which the cuttings are squeezed with soil so that voids do not form between the cuttings and the ground.
The planting pattern of currant cuttings is 20 cm between rows and 10 cm between cuttings.
After planting, the soil should be moistened, spending 1m2 on a bucket of water.
Inspection of cuttings planted in autumn
Those currant cuttings that were planted in the fall (which is also quite acceptable) need to be examined. It happens that the cuttings stick out from the soil, then they will have to be buried in the soil and also squeeze the soil with your hands.
In April, you can prepare plants or spread the shoots if you plan to propagate currants with vertical or horizontal layering. When propagated by vertical layering, the plant needs to be hilled to a third of the height with loose and nutritious soil.
Plants intended for propagation by horizontal layering do not need to be earthed up yet - their shoots should be put on loose and nutritious soil, sewn up with metal or wooden staples and left this way.In the spring, currants should be inspected regularly for diseases and pests.
Currant Care in May
Work in May comes down to caring for currant bushes. If you notice the shoots on which terry inflorescences have formed, then such shoots should be cut and destroyed. When the majority of such shoots, bushes need to be uprooted and destroyed, in their place for five years should not be planted currants. Reversion is a dangerous viral disease with which it makes no sense to fight.
In May, it is necessary to carry out three cultivations of currants, four weeds, five waterings, evenly distributing these activities for a month. You can also make nitroammophoska in the amount of a teaspoon under each bush.
Hilling of shoots intended for vegetative propagation of currant
The shoots that we spread on the surface of the soil in April should already form vertical growths and should be sprinkled with soil at half height.
Currant Care in June
In June, currants are actively growing. If in the past months for some reason you didn’t make nitrogen fertilizers, then in June you can do this by adding a teaspoon of urea under each bush, if you did, then in June you can refuse to apply fertilizers.
Loosening the soil and watering currants
In June, four soil loosening, five irrigation and six weeding should be carried out. The volume of water poured is a bucket under each bush.
Fight against diseases and pests of currant
When diseases appear, you need to fight them using fungicides; when pests appear, you need to use insecticides and acaricides.
Rooting green currant cuttings
In the first decade of June, you can begin to cut green currant cuttings and plant them in a greenhouse for propagation. When propagated by green cuttings, plants are healthier than when propagated by cuttings lignified, however, in this case, both material and physical costs are significantly greater.
In addition to cutting the shoots of currant and dividing them into cuttings, it is also necessary to prepare the greenhouse, cover it with a film and prepare a mixture consisting of nutrient soil, humus and river sand in equal proportions. On top of this layer, you need to pour a layer of river sand of about 6 cm, and lay the first layer (at the base) of the drainage layer, which can be used as expanded clay.
Cuttings of currants 12-14 cm long with a pair of leaves on the top of the head should be planted according to the 7x7 cm pattern, deepening them by 3-4 cm. Provided that they are irrigated 6 times a day in hot weather and 5 times a day in cold and cloudy weather, they form full-fledged roots by early September.
Installation of ring supports on currants
Toward the end of the month, ring supports should be installed under the bushes so that the bush does not fall apart under the weight of the crop.
At the same time, when the berries are already starting to stain slightly, it is advisable to feed the plants with micronutrient fertilizers necessary for the full development of the berries: add 1.5 g of copper sulfate, 2 g of boric acid, 6 g of manganese sulfate, 2.5 g of zinc sulfate and 2.5 g of molybdenum-acid ammonium, dissolving these fertilizers in water (10 l) and moistening the aerial mass of plants well.
The fight against powdery mildew on currants
With a significant defeat of currant berries, shoots and leaves with powdery mildew, it is still possible to treat them with Bordeaux liquid (1%). This should be the final treatment before collection.Harvesting is the most enjoyable currant care program.
Currant Care in July
In July, around the beginning of the first decade, harvesting begins. Currant berries should be removed when they are completely colored and get the color typical of the variety.
It is advisable to pick the berries in medium-sized boxes containing up to ten kilograms of the crop.
The laying of the next year’s crop also continues this month, so after the first harvest, the bushes must be watered, spending 10 liters of water for each plant.
After collecting the entire crop, the plants must be treated with fungicides, and after five days with insecticides and acaricides.
Currant Care in August
At the very beginning of the month, currant bushes must be fed with phosphorus and potash fertilizers, adding 10 g of superphosphate and 12 g of potassium sulfate to each bush.
Loosening the soil and watering currants
You should continue to loosen the soil (2-3 loosening), water the plants (a bucket under each bush five times in August), remove weeds (a couple of careful weeding in August will be enough).
In August, you can pick up currant bushes with vertical layers and once again spud vertical shoots that have grown from the laid out horizontal ones, also half their length. This must be done at the very beginning of the month.
Currant Care in September
Preparing the soil for planting currants
In September, you can prepare the soil for the autumn planting of currants: lignified cuttings and cuttings with roots dug from the greenhouse.
At the end of the month, both vertical and horizontal layering should be separated from the uterine plants and planted on the site.
At the end of the month, currant bushes, if top dressing was not carried out in August, can be fed with phosphorus and potassium fertilizers at the concentrations indicated above.
October Currant Care
You can continue planting currants, cuttings, layering in a permanent place or on a bed of growing.
Collection and disposal of fallen leaves
Leaf blades that have already fallen, it is advisable to collect and burn. In October, you can spend a couple of irrigation and the same amount of loosening the soil.Care for currants in the autumn comes down mainly to cleaning fallen leaves.
Currant Care in November
Plant residue management
At this time, it is necessary to continue harvesting plant residues and burning them.
Pruning Broken Shoots
It is permissible to inspect the plants and if you notice broken shoots, then remove them.
Currant Care in December
Additional shelter of currant plants with snow
It is advisable to add snow to the plants so that they can endure the winter without any problems.
Dear readers! The dates given in this material should be considered approximate, they may vary somewhat, depending on weather conditions and the variety of currants.