Before planting some fruit and berry culture on the site, you need to evaluate the potential compatibility of a tree or shrub with other "residents" of this territory. Plants can be outwardly absolutely harmless, but due to the presence of common diseases and pests, as well as due to natural inactivity, they will not be able to coexist comfortably in one area. The individual characteristics of this or that culture also influence - the release of toxic substances into the soil, poisonous leaves falling in the autumn (poison from which penetrates the soil), the ability of neighboring plants to literally intertwine their roots with each other and others. What plants can not be planted nearby in any case, we will tell in this article.What garden plants should not be planted nearby?
Good neighborhood is the key to comfortable coexistence of plants
The fact that plants that suffer from the same diseases, suffer from the same pests, it is simply impossible to plant close to each other, probably everyone understands it. Of course, if you step back three or four meters from a tree from a tree, it will not save you 100% from outbreaks of infection, but it will help to reduce its risk significantly. True, in small areas to maintain a distance of 3-4 meters is almost impossible. Therefore, when planting plants, you need to avoid neighbors who are "friends" with the same problems.
But when choosing neighbors in the site who, it would seem, do not have common enemies (diseases and pests), you may expect other negative consequences from their coexistence. At a minimum, inhibition of plants by each other. And it arises not only due to the incorrect agricultural technology of crop care. For example, when crop rotation is completely ignored, both in the garden and in the garden. That is, when the same plants are planted in the place of harvested, uprooted vegetable crops or fruit trees the next year, on the depleted and already infected soil.
Some plants can inhibit others, releasing chemical compounds harmful to the latter into the soil. That is, plant allelopathy may occur (literally from ancient Greek - “mutual suffering”). Thus, in nature there is a struggle of plants for their place under the sun.
As a result of allelopathy, plants can, in spite of good care, languish and slow down in development, constantly undergoing certain diseases, although all, as a rule, effective prevention methods were used on time.
True, experts note positive allelopathy: harmful substances secreted by the roots of some plants and supposedly "intended" for rival plants can be neutral or even useful to others.
The right neighborhood, as the prevention of certain diseases
As you know, there are diseases and pests that affect not only one particular plant, but also attack the whole family or are considered almost omnivorous, destroying most of the plants growing on the site. As an example, we can name the causative agent of tubercularia and cytospore necrosis of deciduous plants - they harm literally all deciduous plants, and there's nothing you can do about it.
But there are more "selective" diseases. For example, the rust that the mushroom causes. The development cycle of this fungus is very complex. He needs to go through three whole stages, and at each of them, being on a plant, he is able to grow and carry his spores downwind.
The very first stage takes place in the spring, when the ecziospores develop, then in the summer period urediniospores appear and, finally, in the autumn period the most dangerous ones are formed - basidiospores and teliospores. These various spores in mixed mushrooms ripen on completely different plants, sometimes changing in two, or even three, hosts.
And the most interesting thing is that even if there is no one of the plants on which the first, second or third stages of rust can develop, then the disease itself will not arise. So, for example, it is proved that if barberry does not grow next to grain crops, then rust cannot affect crops. Barberry is an intermediate host of the fungus that causes grain rust, if destroyed, it is almost guaranteed to protect crops from rust.Before planting a tree on a site, check its compatibility with neighboring ones.
What can’t and what can be planted nearby?
Bad neighbors for the apple tree
At the beginning of the 20th century, in the USA, apple orchards began to massively produce substandard crops - apples are completely wormy. And every year their quality became worse. It turned out that apples are affected by rowan moths, or rather, its caterpillars. And the rowan plantings, which at that time began to plant around apple orchards, are to blame. Gardens, near which the rowan tree did not have time or did not want to plant, this pest ignored. Since then it is known that next to me an apple tree can not be planted mountain ash.
Viburnum consumes a large amount of moisture from the soil, pulling it on itself, from this the apple tree suffers. In addition, a huge amount of aphids often settles on viburnum, which, accordingly, spreads to the apple tree.
As for coniferous crops, such as, for example, fir, it can acidify the soil very much over time, in the process of its vital activity it releases a lot of tar polluting the soil into the soil. Usually, you need to wait about three years before planting an apple tree in place of any coniferous plant.
Lilac literally attracts various pests and diseases, which later move to the apple tree.
The neighborhood with peach and cherry for the apple tree is also fraught with troubles, these two types of plants grow very actively, consume a lot of nutrients from the soil and often give a large mass of root shoots, which greatly depresses the apple tree.
The apple and cherry trees will not be friends with each other either, it is proved that the roots of the cherry literally displace the roots of the apple tree from the surface soil layer to the lower ones, where there is a minimum of fertility and moisture, and this causes the apple tree to wither.
A bad neighbor is hawthorn - it attracts literally all the pests that are found on the apple tree.
If you plant junipers next to the apple tree, then the very rust will appear in the garden, it will be extremely difficult to get rid of it.
It is undesirable to keep weeds overgrown with apple orchards, among which there may be bitter wormwood, aphids reproduce very well on it, which gladly moves to the apple tree when young leaves and shoots grow on it.
It is also not advisable to plant potatoes in the aisles of the young apple orchard, as some do. The fact is that potatoes consume a huge amount of nutrients from the soil, greatly depleting it, and the apple trees will actually suffer from hunger, especially in those areas where the soil is rarely fertilized, rare watering is carried out and the apple tree is planted on dwarf rootstocks with a weak root system.
Good neighbors for the apple tree
The south side of apple planting can be planted with tomatoes. Tomatoes are nasty for moth butterflies, and such a neighborhood is considered a good prevention against this pest.
"Friends" with apple and raspberry. The thing is that the raspberry root system is able to fix the nitrogen that the apple tree can use, while the raspberry root system increases the air and water permeability of the earth. Gardeners often observe a positive effect from the contact of the shoots of these plants - the special properties of raspberries help protect the apple tree from such a dangerous disease as scab, and the apple tree, in turn, protects raspberries from the disease, which is no less dangerous for this berry crop - gray rot.
Also the ash-leaved maple is another apple tree; it cleverly relieves the given fruit crop from the codling moth - it simply does not appear on the apple tree. It turns out that volatile, which this type of maple produces, influences the moth. At the same time, it is not necessary to allow the maple to grow to a huge height, to reduce maple growth there are many cropping options and it can be maintained in fairly modest sizes, for example, a meter or one and a half meters high. If you want the phytoncides in the air around the apple tree to be the maximum, then once a day you can go out into the garden and gently crush maple leaves.
Crops such as the apple tree and honeysuckle are considered conditionally compatible, but it is better to plant the honeysuckle around the apple orchard, but do not alternate these crops in rows. The apple tree can be dangerous goldfish, which causes irreparable damage and honeysuckle. Also, from a honeysuckle, a leaf tiller can spread to an apple tree.The pear in the garden is "friendly" with the same plants as the apple tree.
Bad pear neighbors
The pear is in solidarity with the apple tree in terms of dislike for the same plants, and with such crops as beech, barberry and all stone fruits, it simply will not live, because the beech has a powerful root system and a huge aerial mass, and barberry has many similar to pear of diseases and pests. It is not necessary to plant junipers near the pear garden (all because of the same notorious rust).
Do not forget about allelopathy - the root secretions of the pear are also toxic, especially cherries.
Good pear neighbors
But with whom the pear will be friends, it’s with oak, ordinary mountain ash, poplar and, especially, black poplar. Although the oak has a powerful root system, its roots go much deeper than that of a pear, so the tree is not its competitor. Mountain ash consumes a small amount of nutrients and moisture and can even fertilize the soil with an abundance of leaves and berries if they are not harvested. Poplar when planting on the north side can protect the pear from winter cold.
Bad neighbors for cherries
Apricots, black currants, raspberries and the vast majority of early varieties of apple trees will become bad neighbors for cherries.
It is believed that apricot root system secretions are toxic to cherries - slowly killing this plant.
Cherry and blackcurrant should not be planted nearby, firstly, for the reason that it will be impossible to process this or that crop, since their vegetation dates will not coincide, and the roots of blackcurrant can play the role of weed roots, actively absorbing moisture and nutrients from the soil.
Do not plant tomatoes, bell peppers and strawberries in the rows of cherries: the latter, for example, often attracts a nematode, from which all crops without exception can suffer.
The nightshade family should be shielded from cherries due to the active distribution of nightshade verticillosis drying (wilt). This is a dangerous disease (we wrote about it at one time), it leads to a very quick death of wood on cherry. Often there is such a picture - immediately after flowering, the cherry fades.
Good neighbors for cherries
But plums and cherries will become good friends for cherries - their root system is located almost at the same depth, the height of the plants is almost identical and the ripening time of the crop is close, so you can water, fertilize, and process without fear of harming neighboring plants. In addition, some varieties of cherries are good pollinators for cherries.
Bad neighbors for plums
If you decide to plant a plum on the site, then plant it as far as possible from the pear, raspberries, black currants and apple trees. All diseases and pests they have in common, in addition to everything else, they consume the same substances from the soil and will be serious competitors.
Good neighbors for plums
Black elderberry is not only a medicinal crop for humans, but can also save plums from aphids. Maple will have a good effect on the growth and development of plum and its yield, only Canadian, but not American, considered in Russia as the most dangerous weed tree. As you know, Canadian maple reaches a large size, so if you decide to plant it next to the plum, then you need to take care of controlling its growth in height by annual pruning.
Apricot "enemies", in view of common diseases, pests and elements consumed from the soil, are apple trees, pears, plums, peaches, cherries, mountain ash, cherries, and naturally, all kinds of nuts with their poisonous foliage.
Do not plant raspberries and currants next to the apricot, they also have many common pests. It is best to allocate a separate place to the apricot, away from other crops.It is best to allocate a separate place to the apricot, away from other crops.
Peach will not be friends with apples and pears, because there is a likelihood of infection with similar diseases or the defeat of the same pests, and the volumes of substances they consume are the same. It is scientifically proven that the root system of peach, entering the zone of location of the roots of apple and pear, can cause the death and complete death of the latter over time. Of course, you can plant them on one site, but you will have to retreat four or, for greater fidelity, five meters.
It is noticed that if you plant cherries or cherries in the immediate vicinity, then the peach will by all means, try to grow in the opposite direction from them, and the side located to these plants will gradually lose foliage and the shoots on it will begin to dry out. This is due to the increased sensitivity of the peach to light, it needs a large amount of light and does not tolerate any shadow. If no measures are taken, then after a couple of years, the peach may die completely.
If you don’t want a fruit bush constantly to be sick, do not plant barberry next to it, it will not affect only hawthorn, American maple, iru, but other crops can be oppressed, and this even applies to fruit plants.
From fruit, barberry can get along only with a plum, which has a powerful root system and does not have common enemies, and from early berries, with honeysuckle. But all of these crops have one common and serious enemy - juniper, which spreads rust everywhere.
Barberry is very inactive with plants, because it releases a large amount of toxic substance - berberine into the soil, this negatively affects other plants, inhibiting their growth and development.
Red currants can only get along with rose hips, since they have no common diseases and pests with it, and there are no signs of allelopathy between them, but they will have to deal with an abundance of rosehip shoots every year, but currants will not grow well with raspberries, because common dangerous pest - gooseberry moth.
If you want to protect currants from a tick, then plant onions in the aisles of this crop.
Black currant - the main thing is to plant it away from the bird cherry, because the glass-house, the worst enemy of the currant, winters on the bird cherry. Do not plant currants and gooseberries next to them: they have a huge number of common diseases and pests.
In the golden currant, allelopathy is perhaps most pronounced. Moreover, she herself, next to any plants, grows beautifully, but strongly depresses the neighboring ones.
Sea buckthorn is a real aggressor plant, clogging other plants with its shoots. In principle, sea buckthorn can only be combined with garden strawberries, but do not forget about the presence of common diseases and pests in these crops.
Conclusion Of course, in small areas where you want to plant as many fruit trees and bushes as possible, you can hardly maintain the necessary distance between plants. We hope that our article will help you organize the right neighborhood for the "inhabitants" of your garden. Your observations regarding the favorable or not so close proximity of plants will be glad to read in the comments.