Currants, black or "colored", at least a couple of bushes must be literally on every garden plot, usually along its perimeter, and sometimes in the center - in a place of honor. Saplings of this culture are valued cheaply, perhaps because they easily propagate (just stick a lignified cuttings in the ground), or maybe because the breeders have brought so many varieties of currants that almost every inhabitant of the planet Earth will find their favorite . All this has led to the fact that not every gardener asks about the rejuvenation of currant bushes. But still there are situations when it is preferable to rejuvenate an old bush of currant than to plant a new one. To help gardeners, who find it easier to put an old bush in order - having rejuvenated it rather than uprooting, we publish today's material.How to rejuvenate currant bushes?
When to start rejuvenating the currant bush?
Usually, when the currant steps over a dozen years or a little more, the bush is simply uprooted, the soil is allowed to rest for a couple of years, adding organic matter (a bucket to the place where the bush grew) and mineral fertilizers (a tablespoon of nitroammophos). And then, if a healthy bush previously grew on this place, a new one is planted. But there are exceptions - for example, the gardener really likes a particular variety, say "Little Prince", and it is simply not in any nursery in the region or there are a lot of seedlings, and the gardener no longer has the physical strength to uproot the old bush, and then plant a young seedling on the site.
But, generally speaking, a cardinal pruning of the currant bush, its actual rejuvenation, should occur already in the year of planting this seedling on the site. They planted a seedling, it doesn’t matter - in the fall or spring, obliquely, and cut off all the shoots, leaving only their parts with five buds on each growth - here you have the first serious pruning and the first rejuvenation, because the youngest shoots will grow from the buds.
Optimal pruning time for currant bushes
Most gardeners are prone to pruning as soon as most of the currant leaves are on the ground, that is, fall naturally. Other gardeners (there are slightly fewer of them) say that it is better to prune currants early in the spring, but in this case it is absolutely necessary to complete all the operations related to pruning before the buds open, that is, to carry it out while the snow is still under your feet.
In addition, in spring there is one significant advantage of pruning currants in spring - the branches affected after winter are visible, they must be cut first.
Both spring and autumn currant pruning, in essence, are equivalent, the main thing is to rejuvenate pruning nevertheless.A cardinal pruning of the currant bush, its actual rejuvenation, should occur already in the year of planting this seedling on the site.
Six main causes of anti-aging pruning currants
Anti-aging pruning of currants must necessarily include removal of branches older than five years of age, all vertically oriented shoots, that is, tops and very weak shoots (thinner than a simple pencil with sharpened edges, which are practically useless).
Currant bush urgently needs to be rejuvenated in cases of:
- If he is seriously ill, when it is appropriate to leave only healthy shoots.
- If the bush became simply huge, it "fell apart" in the area, and it already interferes with neighboring plants.
- If there are a large number of shoots that are actively trying to get into the center of the crown, which will certainly cause its thickening.
- In that case, if you got a site with already old bushes of currant, and you are not yet ready to uproot them.
- When the plant "knocked" for more than seven years, and the harvests were simply meager.
- In the event that for some reason the root system was damaged, then the difference between the aboveground and underground parts is large, and this drawback must be eliminated.
Clarification of the center of the crown of the currant bush leads, naturally, to an increase in yield, a decrease in the risk of mushroom diseases, and also eliminates the need to treat plants with harmful chemicals, reduces the number of pests, and increases plant immunity. There will be much less work to care for the neater and younger currant plants.Anti-aging pruning currants must necessarily include removal of branches older than five years of age.
Features pruning currant bushes
Firstly, no rainy weather, although the water is useful to all living things, bacteria can be in its drops, so when you cut off the shoot and a drop of water falls on it, it is likely that the plant will already be infected.
Pay attention to the cutting tool - saws, hacksaws, pruners, garden knives, axes - everything should be sharp and clean. Take a jar of alcohol and cotton wool with you and as soon as you move from one plant to another, be sure to wipe the blade of the cutting tool with alcohol to disinfect it and prevent the spread of infection.
After pruning the currant, be sure to remove all cut shoots as soon as possible, they can cause pests that, sensing something was wrong, can literally rush into the soil in search of refuge, you can not hesitate - they cut and burned it.
If you got currant bushes older than seven years, and you want to rejuvenate them, then do not do it in one year, stretch the rejuvenation of such plants for two years, or better for three, so that the plant does not experience extreme stress from removing a large number of shoots at the same time.
You should also know that, like a person’s age, the age of the plant is not infinite, so a bush of black currant with more fibrous and active roots can be rejuvenated four times in its entire life. But for colored currants, in which the root system is more pronounced towards the core, rejuvenation should be carried out no more than three times during the life of the plant, then it is more advisable to uproot the bushes. Why only triple rejuvenation? Because the maximum age of life of currant, as a plant, is usually calculated (by experience) 30-35 years.
Currant rejuvenation - a guide to action
In autumn, the first thing to do is to choose the wood that we will remove and the one that we will leave. We will immediately realize how radical our further actions in terms of pruning will be. The darkest - this is the old wood, it must be removed, leaving only shoots with light wood.
If you prune in the autumn, then you need to water the bushes by pouring a couple of buckets of water, and if in the spring, it is better to feed them with nitroammophos, dissolving a teaspoon of fertilizer in a bucket of water, and pour this amount of liquid under each rejuvenated currant bush.
In addition to trimming old wood, cut into a ring all twisted shoots growing deep into the crown, all those that were broken by snow or after harvesting, remove all diseased currant shoots.
The basic rule in this case: you should leave the most lively, young shoots of currant and, as a sculptor, "remove all excess" so that the plant comes to life, and young shoots begin to develop as actively as possible, without interference. Here, shoots formed from the roots (from underground) will also start growing.
Many people think that currants are difficult to activate the growth of such shoots ("nuleviks"), in fact, no: just need to cut a couple of old branches into a ring and the nuleviks will begin to appear above the soil surface.
By the way, nuleviks are very useful in terms of updating the currant bush, they are strong, the main thing is not to let them form tops, that is, shoots that grow strictly vertically and grow at the very base of the nulevik. And the nuleviks themselves too much do not need to be left on the same plant, otherwise we will thicken the bush, it’s enough to leave only the three strongest and strongest nuleviks, and remove the rest from the soil surface.
Also, be sure to cut the tips of all the currant shoots for a couple of centimeters that you left, this simple technique will contribute to thickening of the shoots, they will cease to stretch into a string and a larger number of inflorescences will form on them, and at the same time - berries.
It is interesting that with the help of such pruning it is quite possible to rejuvenate even currant bushes, which are one and a half dozen years old, but in this case it is necessary to act “barbarously”: just take and cut the entire bush, leaving only part of it with a couple of three healthy and healthy kidneys on it.
Further, a currant bush subjected to such an execution must be poured with three buckets of water if pruning was done in the fall, or fed with a tablespoon of nitroammophos, also necessarily dissolved in a bucket of water.
In the future, such a bush of currants will begin to grow actively, a lot of shoots will form and you will need to select about five pieces from a whole bunch of young branches, and the rest mercilessly removed by cutting them into a ring. After such pruning, when only sanitary pruning is performed, the anti-aging pruning can be forgotten for eight or even nine years.Anti-aging pruning of currant bushes older than seven years is better done in more than one season.
The easiest way to rejuvenate the currant bush
There is a variant of the simplest rejuvenation of any old currant bush - in the early spring or late autumn you simply remove, cutting off the surface of the soil, a quarter of all shoots and so on for four seasons in a row, the main thing is not to confuse and cut the same shoots for two consecutive seasons, otherwise there will be no sense in such anti-aging pruning.
Work on the care of rejuvenated currant bushes
Naturally, this is frequent watering (once a week in a bucket of water), weeding (it is advisable to maintain the prikustovy zone under black steam), loosening the soil (to a depth of 3-4 cm), weed, disease and pest control.
Further, top dressing: it is best to use nitroammophosk in spring in the amount of a tablespoon diluted in a bucket of water for each bush, after loosening the soil and removing all weeds. In mid-summer, you need to dilute in a bucket of water a teaspoon of potassium sulfate and superphosphate and also pour this amount under each bush, also previously loosening the soil and removing all weeds, and in the autumn you need to carry out water-charging irrigation, pouring 2-3 buckets of water under each bush is already rejuvenated currants.
Conclusion As you can see, there is nothing complicated in currant rejuvenation, there are no special secrets and mysteries. The main thing is to choose for this a dry and sunny autumn or spring day, arm yourself with a sharp and clean secateurs or a garden knife, cut off old, already blackened wood, tidy up the young shoots, removing those that grow deep into the crown, and then monitor the appearance new shoots - choosing the strongest and most well-developed ones from them - the key to a future crop.
Of course, all this time the currant bush needs to be nurtured like a child - to protect from diseases and weeds, loosen the soil, water and fertilize, then it will not be necessary to plant a new variety of currant on the site - the old one will live a very long time.