If you were lazy in the fall and didn’t whiten, on our advice, the trunks of fruit trees until the first branches, having cleaned up the old bark, and did not protect the base of the trunks from rodents, even with fir spruce branches, then in the spring a very unpleasant surprise will be waiting for you at your dacha. In this article, we will consider the possible consequences of winter for the garden: sunburns, cracks, frost-holes, hollows and tree bites. What to do with them, how to treat your favorite trees, we will now try to tell you.Orchard in spring
Sunburn on the trees
First of all, we start with reasons that depend on us indirectly, well, yes, the trunk and the base of skeletal branches did not whiten, but we ourselves did not spoil the tree. It usually starts, not in the winter, but in the spring, when April, like a shy little boy, starts letting hot sunbeams back and forth. But at this time, feeling the warmth, the trees begin to feed, their sap flow is activated, and at first strange, slightly indented spots on the bark appear, just where the whitewashing should be, especially for trees planted last year and the year before last.
Further, these opposite places begin to swell and the cortex, as if by magic, suddenly curls along the spot, exposing the wood at once, these are the ones. Well and further that - various completely inedible mushrooms penetrate the gates wide open, and if it is a stone fruit culture, then there is an abundant gumming. These are the most urgent sunburns, which are formed in the places of the stem and skeletal branches that have not been whitened since autumn.
How to treat sunburn? We'll have to pick up tools, for example, an iron scraper that we know and very carefully, trying not to damage healthy tissue, remove dying and dead bark by actually cutting it.
Important! The tool in this operation should be as sharp as a razor, otherwise you can make even more scoring. The best option for a beginner is a construction knife with breakable segments.
A sunburn must certainly be cleaned to clean and healthy wood (by the way, this procedure is completely painless for a tree), then wipe what happened with a clean cloth, moistened with a weak solution of potassium permanganate and, just in case, treat the wound with 3% Bordeaux liquid. Next, an hour or two or three wounds should be left completely at rest, allowing the treatment to dry, but it is better not to leave it in the open sun, it is better to cover it with a regular newspaper, moisture evaporates well through it, especially when the sun bakes during the day.
When the wound dries it can be covered with any, essentially addictive composition, well, the simplest is a garden var, and if you love your tree and want its speedy recovery, the composition can be made more serious.
For this you need to take a gram of 100 beeswax, 20 g of gasoline for lighters (not filth from the tank for the car) and ordinary sulfur, to the state of the powder ground in a mortar, also 100 g. Our wax must be completely melted in a water bath to a liquid state , remove from the heat and pour in gasoline 20 g (that's enough), as a result, you get a mixture resembling petroleum jelly. Further, in this petroleum jelly, it is necessary, thoroughly mixing with a toothpick or stick, add our ground sulfur and move all this to any jar that can be closed and from which this composition can be conveniently taken.
One minus, this composition hardens longer than a garden var, according to my estimates about 15 minutes, but in the same year an even layer of new and living tissue forms and repeating it two or three times, as in the case of garden var, is not necessary.Sunburn on the bark of a fruit tree.
Frost bumps are usually treated for a long time; several years can elapse from the moment of detection to a complete cure. Frost chills are cracks of different lengths and depths. To begin with, with the same clerical knife or scraper, the wound must be well cleaned from dead tissue and wiped with 3-4% copper sulfate on the surface. Only then can the wound be covered with a mixture of ordinary clay and mullein in equal parts or with ordinary garden varieties, which of course is less reliable.
In the event that the frost hole is more than 15 cm long and several centimeters deep, you will have to act differently - here you need to take the thickest wire and tighten the trunk tightly, preliminarily placing wood spacers under it. Alas, such processes will need to be repeated every spring until a well-formed scar forms.
In the immediate vicinity of the frost pits, especially in pome crops, new shoots are often formed that have their own leaf blades. These shoots must be preserved, in order to increase the flow of food into the wound area, but to prevent the shoots from growing in height, they should be pinched by about one third of the tops. As soon as the wounds are healed, it is advisable to cut these shoots into a ring, although if they do not interfere, then you can leave it.
If a large frost hole is seen on the apple tree, then in the spring you can try to restore it by grafting with a bridge, connecting the edges with last year’s growth, but this is more than prank and doesn’t even smell of reliability here.Frost Frost on a Fruit Tree
Hollow in the trees
The hollow itself does not cause much harm, trash, bacteria, putrefactive microflora and other negative substances that clog there are harmful, which, decaying, ultimately lead to an increase and deepening of the hollow and can even cause the death of a tree.
So, we come to the conclusion that the hollow needs to be treated and it’s necessary, for this we prepare the composition (something like a tooth fillings), but first with a sharp knife we scrape everything from the hollow, cleaning it almost to a shine so that not a single speck remains in it and be sure to treat the field of all these works with 5% Bordeaux fluid.
Next, we prepare a real seal, even our grandfathers and grandmothers made wonderful fillings, consisting of at least 400 brand cement, ordinary drying oil, as well as a solution of potassium soap and ground sulfur. Five parts of cement need a part of drying oil, half a part of potash soap and half a part of ground sulfur. Of this, by thick and quick mixing, we make the real solution to the consistency of grandmother's sour cream and pour this solution inward, pushing hands with rubber gloves on.
The next day, if a dent is suddenly formed, we add the solution, but usually it is necessary to clean it off with a file, achieving an even layer with the surface of the tree. Usually, there will definitely be enough such fillings for 8-10 years, but then, alas, it falls out, because the tree grows and you have to repeat everything again, but depending on where it stands, it may never fall out again.
Rodents, often five minutes to set the net or scatter poison from the gardener, didn’t have bites on the trunk, it’s good if not around, but also nothing especially good and most importantly the lower the worse, if the bites are lower than the place of vaccination, then generally write disappeared, well, do not do the same funny vaccination with the bridge, well, all this nonsense is the right word ?!
But since the patient insists, we will describe, although the point is that this is at least small, but there is one. The idea is that grafting with a bridge will revive, you can say a dead tree, and from it in summer or spring you can cut cuttings for grafting (spring) or budding (fall) and plant already normal seedlings, but this tree, alas, uproot.
So, let's start, all we need is a copulation knife and the tree itself, oh yes, two strips of plastic film a centimeter wide and ten centimeters long or, if there is no sense in them, then a garden var and a roll of cling film. Stripes of the film can be cut from any durable bag, the main thing is that the color is white or milky in extreme cases, that is, the film is not heated under the sun.
Early in the spring, usually May, as soon as the sap flow begins, carefully clean all the edges damaged by mice or hares to a healthy tissue so that the lesion can be seen. All last year’s shoots, at the same time, it’s better to remove only a couple from the tree, some of them need to be cut into cuttings eight or more centimeters long, in general they must be longer than the bark area damaged by mice or hares, after that, on each shoot, as in the usual make two wedges with one and the other part.
Next, these wedges, carefully so as not to break, insert into the bark located below and above the place damaged by mice or hares, preferably with the cut side facing the trunk. That's essentially all. It remains to wrap the bottom and top with a film, and if this is impossible due to the large thickness of the trunk, then simply cover up with garden varieties, including the places of burials, too.
As for the quantity necessary for grafting the cuttings with the bridge, it all depends on the thickness of the trunk, there can be two, five, seven, and at least ten, the more likely the apple tree will survive, the better. Well, for example, the diameter of the gnawed trunk is 4-6 cm, then three cuttings will be enough, if the diameter is more than 12 centimeters, then you need seven or eight cuttings.
Further, ideally, after coating with garden var, all this must be done very carefully so that the vaccines do not move, wrap with plastic wrap for ten days, no more, after which it must be removed. In fact, five years will pass and the tree will begin to actively develop again, well, if you want to get seedlings from this variety, then cut off the feathery shoots and plant modern rootstocks on normal dwarf or semi-dwarf rootstocks, and just cut this tree or leave it to yourself as a reminder what happens if you hurry without doing something important.
But this is not all, it turns out that you can save a tree that has been bitten by mice and hares and in other ways. One of them is simpler and the other is more complex. Let's start with a simple one - plant an ordinary stock near a gnawed apple tree, preferably a dwarf rootstock, backing off 10-15 centimeters, sharpen its crown very sharply with an ocular knife and drive it under the seedling bark exactly above the damaged place, so the food will go and the tree will have to come to life. But at the same time, 70% of the shoots should be removed, otherwise the tree will die, it simply does not have enough nutrients.
Well, the most interesting option is the engraftment of the bark, I have never tried it, but they write that there is an effect. If any of you try and you succeed, be sure to write about it in the comments.
First you need to make a kind of patch, for which you need to take a branch (thicker) from the same tree and use the budding knife to completely remove the whole bark from it (first cut along, and then divide the bark by bending it in different directions), so that it fits for the exchange of a site damaged by mice or rats.
After that, it is necessary to clean the place for engraftment from irregularities and, in conclusion, apply a new bark in exact accordance with the direction of growth of the bark on the stem. There remains a place of so-called contraction, as tightly as possible tied with polyethylene tape taking a width appropriate for the size, be sure to capture the healthy part of the bark of the gauge both on its upper and lower parts and so that it holds at least five centimeters tighter.
After the behavior of this, I would say, a fairly complex operation, the tree must be put on an enhanced watering regime and give it a double portion of top dressing.
The root neck, in stone fruit crops, is a vulnerable spot, and if you dig it a little bit when planting, then in winters rich in snow and cool springs that do not allow moisture to evaporate quickly, this can lead to heating of this important place. Especially often young stone fruits suffer and if they are planted in an understated place.
Sometimes the warming, like a scratch on the hand, heals by itself, and sometimes the hot spot is large, quite noticeable. The first sign that the tree has grown stupid is the abundance of root shoots and if it is the root shoot of a stock, then it’s completely a bad thing, it can be seen that the tree itself decided to lay hands and grow a savage instead of a cultivar.
Try to get a bridge-type inoculation, don’t remove this shoot, choose the thickest ones (eight pieces), grind them with an ocular knife as the teacher soaks a pencil lead, and stick under the bark in the spring or summer time (July) above, and fix something, even with simple electrical tape, the main thing is to be stronger. It is possible that the tree will be able to be saved, but it is better to transfer it to another horseshoe in the future, having reoccupied or re-copulated.Apple tree dysplasia due to root system problems
Well, sometimes it happens, but how to understand? To begin with, if the tree is already far behind in growth or does not grow at all, just dig up the soil and make an incision with a knife on the bark and root wood, if everything is bad and everything is black and black, then it is clear that the roots died.
What to do with frozen trees? Throw away it is not worth it, try cutting them short before the beginning of May, leaving 30% of their wood, but only making sure that the tree does not show signs of life and do not touch those shoots that, although slowly, come to life. Be sure to cover all sections with garden varnish, and preferably with acrylic garden paint.
Trunk circles of such trees and shrubs with a humus layer of humus in a couple of centimeters, this will increase the reproduction of the earthworm and save moisture from rapid evaporation. Do not forget to loosen and weed the soil near such trees. Watering the tree needs to be done very carefully, only as the soil dries up, remember that he still has no roots and there’s nothing to absorb moisture from.
It is not uncommon, especially after harsh winters, and if you hoped for a chance and with a thermophilic plant, you did nothing that could be done in the fall. To begin with, wait for the buds to open on the shoots and those that have not blossomed mercilessly cut, smearing the sections with acrylic paint.
Further, usual care, twice the amount of fertilizers, carefully picking off all the flowers if it is a fruit plant and approximately in October, and you can also in November mandatory water-charging irrigation capable of wetting the soil to a depth of 35 cm.
It is advisable to add 3-4 kg of well-rotted manure, diluted 1 to 10, even under the crown, to the previously loosened soil.