It would seem that a fairly simple task is to take and plant a tree. But in fact - this is a whole range of events that you definitely need to know about and follow all of them. Otherwise, you can get a completely different result that every gardener dreams of. With an incorrect, untimely planting of a tree, you can achieve a much smaller crop or not wait for it at all, or, instead of a couple of years from planting to the first crop, wait for the fruit two, or even three times longer. So how do you plant a tree correctly? We will talk about this in this article.Young tree in the garden.
Dates of planting fruit trees
It is known that trees can be planted both in spring and autumn. The best time in spring is before budding. In most of Russia, this is April. In autumn, planting should be completed 15-20 days before the onset of sustained cold weather. Usually trees are planted in October, when the soil is wet, it is no longer hot and not cold.
Knowing the planting dates, everyone can decide for himself when it is more convenient for him to plant a tree. Naturally, there is less time in the spring: it is not always possible to manage to plant a tree before buds open; Autumn is a calmer time, and the choice of seedlings in the nurseries is greatest. If you buy a tree in the fall, deciding to plant in the spring, you will have to dig it somewhere and protect it from rodents.
Nursery is the best place to buy
The very first rule of planting any tree begins with the choice of the place of its acquisition. Buying trees is best in nurseries. It is advisable that the nursery in which you are going to buy a seedling successfully exist in your city for at least a couple of years. It is in the nursery that you can buy a full-fledged seedling of any tree, corresponding to the variety, without diseases and not infected by pests.
However, even there, when buying, be sure to inspect the root system, the aerial part of the plant, and if you do not find rot, burrs of bark, dried out roots, then the seedling can be purchased. By the way, it is best to transport a seedling to its site by first dipping its root system in a clay mash, sprinkling the roots with sawdust and wrapping them in a plastic bag.
Each seedling has its own place
In order for a tree to grow successfully on your site, you need to choose its place for it. The vast majority of trees will grow well in the illuminated area, without shade, without depressions and depressions (places where melt or rain water accumulates), on soils with a groundwater level located no closer than two meters to their surface.
It is wonderful if there is protection on the north side in the form of a wall of a house, a fence or other structure, not a single tree will refuse it. Pick a site where the crop you are planting has not grown before or at least five or six years past. Do not plant, say, an apple tree again an apple tree and so on. Why?
Everything is simple: in addition to the fact that a certain type of culture sucks out the required set of elements from the soil in the required amount, it also “enriches” the soil with pests and diseases, wintering or sleeping, which immediately activate as soon as the same place again culture.
The type of soil is also important, because the optimal place is not only where it is light, even and moisture does not stagnate. The vast majority of trees will grow well only on nutritious and loose soil, such as chernozem, loam and the like. Do not plant trees on sandy or very dense clay soil without preliminary preparation of the substrate: loosening (the addition of river sand or, for example, buckwheat husks) - this is the case with clay soil or, conversely, seals (loamy addition of clay to the soil, usually a bucket per square meter) - in the case of sandy soil.
The pH level, i.e. the balance of acid and alkali, is also undoubtedly important. The best option is usually a pH from 6.0 to 7.0, if it is higher, then this soil is alkaline, below it is acidic, few trees like such soil. You can check the pH level with an ordinary litmus test, diluting a piece of soil in water and dipping it there. The color in which the paper will be painted, and will indicate the pH level. A set of litmus papers and scales can be bought at any garden center.Young orchard.
Distance between seedlings
In this case, we are talking about a landing pattern. Trees, whatever they are, certainly do not like thickenings. While the seedling is young with a thin stem and a couple of shoots, it seems that a meter of free area is enough, however, after five years, when a powerful above-ground mass is formed, the crown of your tree will begin to interfere with neighboring trees or shrubs, begin to reach for light, may begin to bend or it will become ugly one-sided, and then nothing can be done about the tree - it's too late.
To avoid trouble, do not be greedy, plant large trees so that the distance from other trees is at least three meters, this should be enough for the full development of the crown.
Fertilizing the soil before planting
Before landing, when you have decided on the place and scheme, you need to properly prepare the soil. Outwardly, it seems that the whole soil is the same, it is black or gray, closer to brown and so on. In fact, the composition of the soil can be said to be unique. On one site, only potassium can be enough to satisfy the needs of the tree, on the other - nitrogen, and on the third all three main elements for the full development of the tree will not be enough.
So, to mitigate the risk of starvation of the tree after planting, the soil must be fertilized before planting. Fertilizers are usually applied for digging the soil, distributing well-rotted manure or humus on the surface (4-5 kg per 1 m2), wood ash (250-300 g per 1m2) and nitroammofosku (tablespoon per 1 m2) Usually, these fertilizers are enough for the tree to begin to fully develop in a new place.
When preparing the soil, be sure to remove all weeds, especially wheatgrass rhizomes, they are the first competitors to the seedling, and at the initial stage of the tree’s life there should not be any on the new site. A wheat grass, by the way, can restore its growth even if only one centimeter of its root remains in the soil.
Features of creating a landing fossa
When the soil is ready, you can begin to create landing pits. This procedure is ordinary, not complicated, but there are its own rules. For example, you need to dig holes, making the edges even, 25-30% larger than the root system of the tree, and dig them at least a couple of weeks before planting a seedling.
A preliminary digging of the hole will allow the soil to settle even before the seedling is placed in it, then there will be no unpleasant surprise in the form of a failed seedling a couple of days after planting. Be sure to arrange drainage from expanded clay, broken brick or pebbles at the bottom of the pit.
Most trees like drainage, it will not allow stagnation of water at the root system and thereby exclude its decay. On top of the drainage, it is necessary to pour a nutrient layer, as gardeners call it - a nutrient pillow. It should consist of a mixture of humus and nutrient soil (usually the top soil layer is the most nutritious) in equal proportions with the addition of 50 g of wood ash and 15-20 g of nitroammophos. Before placing the root system of the seedling in the pit, it must be well watered.Placement of a seedling in a landing hole.
How to place a seedling in a hole?
We proceed directly to the landing. So, the hole is ready, filled with fertilizers, watered and it has been 12-14 days already, the soil has settled and you can plant a tree in a permanent place.
It is advisable to start landing with the installation of a support peg, it must be set exclusively from the north side. A support peg is needed to keep the tree upright for the first time until the seedling is strong. After installing it, you need to pick up our tree and have a good look at its trunk. On the trunk you can see the darker side and lighter.
The dark side is usually south, the light side is north. If you want the tree to quickly take root in a new place, you need to place it like this: so that the darker side faces south, and the light side faces north. Thus, we will plant the tree as it had previously grown in the nursery, and the stress from transplanting will be at least slightly reduced.
Next, when planting, first lower the sapling into the hole and carefully straighten its roots so that they look to the sides, do not bend, do not break and are not directed upward, from the hole.
In general, it is more convenient to plant any tree together, one person should hold it tightly by the trunk, and the other should sprinkle the roots with soil. When filling the roots with soil, try to twitch the seedling a little so that all the voids between the roots are filled with soil, not air. When planting, we advise you to compact the soil layer by layer, that is, sprinkle lightly - compact a little, then again - pour the soil, compact again, and so on, until the pit is filled.
It is extremely important during planting to ensure that the root neck (the place where the roots go into the trunk) must be slightly higher than the soil surface, at least a centimeter or a little more. It seems that this is a trifle, in fact, if you deepen the root neck, the tree will immediately slow down in growth, and the entry into the fruiting season will be very delayed (in stone fruit, for example, root neck neck may even wither and the tree will die).
It’s not necessary to let everything drift, hoping for a little chance, even if you later “dig out” the root neck, anyway a depression will form around it and moisture will fall on the soil surface, it doesn’t matter with rain or watering, it will stagnate this recess, and the root neck will also rot.
After the root system is completely sprinkled with soil, it is necessary to compact the soil, set up the tree so that it stands upright, tie it to the peg with the “eight” to prevent constrictions, then pour soil with a couple of buckets of water and be sure to mulch the soil surface with humus layer in a couple of centimeters .
Humus is a very good mulch, when planting in the fall it will save moisture from evaporation and will not allow the root system of the seedling to freeze, and when planting a seedling in spring, a layer of mulch in the form of humus will be additional nutrition, will not allow the formation of soil crust and inhibit the growth of weeds.Installation of a support peg when planting a seedling
First seedling care
If you think that with the sowing of the seedling in the soil, the planting is over, then you are mistaken. There are several actions that are carried out after landing, but still they should be included in the list of indispensable landing activities. In the autumn, it is the protection of young trees from rodents. Usually, after planting, the stem to a height of about 60 cm is wrapped in a plastic net, and a poisoned bait is scattered around the seedling.
When planting in spring, it is necessary to protect the young tree trunk from sunburn by whitening it.
After all this, we can say with confidence that the landing is over. As you can see, there is nothing complicated in planting a tree on its site, and if everything is done correctly, the tree will soon bring the first crop, which will only grow from year to year.