Blackcurrant grows and bears fruit in each suburban area. Its beneficial properties are undeniable. But, like other garden crops, it is susceptible to damage by various pests, including a currant bud. This article describes different methods of protecting the berry from the attack of the pest and measures to combat it.
Kidney currant tick
Kidney currant tick refers to four-legged ticks. It is extremely difficult to see them due to microscopic dimensions. The external dimensions of adult female kidney mites are 0.2 mm, and males are even smaller. The body of the kidney currant mite is white, worm-shaped, elongated-rounded, with 4 legs. The legs are composed of segments, hence the name arthropods. With the help of a piercing-sucking mouth apparatus, ticks suck out the juice of plants, dooming them to death.Currant kidney, affected by a currant kidney mite, in a section.
Kidney currant tick development cycle
Fertilized female currant bud mites winter in the kidneys. A closed shelter protects them from winter frosts and other weather disasters.
In spring, when air warms up to + 5 ° С, female currant buds begin to lay eggs intensively. One female is able to lay about 8,000 eggs. In one kidney, 3-8 thousand individuals can simultaneously be present, which makes the kidney swell and becomes like a miniature pea. In the section, such a pea resembles a bursting cabbage cabbage.
The intra-egg development of the larva of the kidney currant tick lasts about 6-12 days. Gluttonous young individuals, through tears of the "goat" during the bud opening, are introduced into healthy kidneys and begin to feed. Sucking out the juice of young shoots, flower and vegetative buds, they lead to the death of not yet unfolded plant organs. The resettlement of young females and larvae of the kidney currant tick lasts about a month, coinciding with the phase of onset and mass flowering. During this period they can be seen with the naked eye. The horde of gluttonous pests is transferred to other bushes by wind, clothing, rain.
How dangerous is a kidney currant tick?
According to the level of harmfulness of the kidney currant mite, they are referred to the group of very dangerous pests of fruit and vegetable orchards. In one year, 1 female kidney currant tick gives 5 generations (2 spring and 3 summer-autumn), which is about 15-40 thousand pests. In the process of development, kidney currant mites adapted to tolerate climatic cataclysms in protected conditions (kidneys, shoots, galls, etc.), which complicates the fight against these pests. The developed fitness is so reliable that if cardinal protective measures are not taken, the berry (black, red, white currant and gooseberry) can die in one season.
Signs of kidney currant mite lesion
The kidney currant tick mainly affects the plant’s buds. By autumn, deformed, damaged kidneys increase in size and begin to differ in appearance from healthy ones.
On currant bushes affected by a kidney currant mite in the fall after falling leaves, two types of buds are well distinguished:
- Healthy buds, normally developed flower, roundly elongated and elongated leafy, covered by dense external scales.
- Patients - swollen, round, resembling a loosened miniature head of cabbage. They are inflated by a huge number of wintering mature female ticks that are ready for breeding with the onset of warm weather.
In the spring-summer period:
- changes in the shape, size and color of leaves on the tops of young shoots are alarming.
- The leaf blade becomes rough, leathery to the touch, light in color, and may be deformed.
- Escape ceases to develop. Witches' brooms appear on the stems. This is a viral infection of plants, the vectors of which, along with other pests, are tick mites. They transmit such viral diseases as leaf reversal and double flowers. There is no treatment. Ill plants destroy.
Kidney currant control measures
It is very difficult to fight a kidney currant mite, which spends almost its entire life inside the kidney. The maximum number of vulnerable larvae could be destroyed by treatment with pesticides during their relocation. But, given the period of resettlement (budding and flowering), processing is strictly prohibited, since at this moment pollination with beneficial insects (bees, bumblebees) is in progress. Therefore, kidney currant ticks are classified as especially dangerous pests. Techniques for the active destruction of the kidney currant tick are carried out in the period before flowering and after harvesting.
All types of control of kidney currant tick on currant can be divided into:
Preventive measures against kidney currant mite include:
- site maintenance without weeds;
- clearing the berry from leaf litter;
- mandatory sanitary pruning in the fall and spring;
- reproduction only with healthy planting material.
Timely irrigation, top dressing and treatment of plants, which will increase the immunity of plants to the damaging effects of pests.
For planting and breeding, use only zoned, pest resistant varieties.
It is very important that the planting material is not affected by the pest. To prevent infection, you can lower the sapling or rooted stem for 18-20 hours completely into a working solution prepared from agrovertin (10 g) and colloidal sulfur (40 g) in 10 l of water.
You can plant seedlings and rooted shoots before planting, hold in hot water (+ 40 ... + 45 ° C no more) for 15 minutes;
The larvae of kidney currant ticks do not tolerate high humidity. This property can be used and, at the first resettlement of hatching larvae (the first spring generation), to thaw the berry.
Every year, in early spring (early March), on sleeping buds, treat black, red and white (only currant only) currant bushes with fire.
Procedure: After sanitary and thinning pruning of currant bushes, blow a blowtorch or gas burner at a distance of 8-10 cm from the branches 2-3 times from top to bottom, without stopping, so as not to burn the branches. Heating with fire will destroy aphids and most of the ticks without damaging the plant. Fire will not damage healthy kidneys, covered with dense upper scales. The diseased kidneys are loose, the cover is torn by overpopulation of the kidney by pests that lay eggs of future offspring. They are very vulnerable during this period and fire (high temperature) burns and causes the death of unwanted "tenants". Of course, with this method, not all females die, but their activity decreases sharply.
In the same period, instead of fire treatment, currant bushes can be "bought" with a hot shower, spending 1.0-1.2 buckets of water on a large bush.
Procedure: For processing bushes, it is more convenient to use a watering with a spray. Pour boiling water into the container. Above the bush, from about a height of 15-20 cm, wash the bush. At low air temperature, hot boiling water, when filling the sprinkler and until the water reaches the bush, cools down to + 60 ... + 70 ° С. Such a temperature the plant will not harm, but it will destroy part of the pests (the principle of action is the same as with fire treatment) and fungal infection.
The physical destruction of the kidney currant tick
When spring pruning, it is necessary to carefully examine each branch of currant. If there are 1-2 swollen buds on a branch, they are torn off and put into a bag, which is then burned. If the number of inflated kidneys is 4-6, and they are scattered throughout the branch, it must be cut and burned. This physical destruction of the kidney currant tick is effective, especially if this procedure is performed annually in spring and autumn.
The use of chemicals and other drugs to destroy the currant kidney tick
The following methods of destroying the kidney currant mite are not safe for the owner, his family, pets and birds. Therefore, before using pesticides to destroy the tick, it is necessary to carefully prepare, study, according to special literature, the effect and aftereffect of the chemical, its effectiveness, repeated use and technical recommendations.
If you violate the requirements of the instructions for use of the drug, its effectiveness can be reduced to zero.
The development cycle of a kidney currant tick depends on external temperatures. The first active development of the kidney currant tick larvae begins at an air temperature of + 10 ... + 12 ° C, but their release and relocation can occur in 25 days, until the air warms up to + 18 ° C. The higher the air temperature rises, the shorter the period from the development of a carnivorous larva from an egg, which will infect new buds in the native and neighboring bushes (Table 1).
Table 1. Intervals of treatment with drugs against renal currant tick
|Air temperature ° C||Development period, days||Processing Interval, days|
The number of treatments in the temperature range should be at least three:
- the first treatment destroys the overwintered adult females of the kidney currant tick and hatched larvae (resistant to cold). Some eggs do not have time to go through a development cycle;
- with the onset of heat, the second wave of larvae completes the development cycle. If the treatment interval is not maintained (late with the treatment of the bushes), the larvae have time to turn into adult ticks and lay the second egg laying.
- third treatment safety. Surviving young females of the kidney currant mite can lay eggs, which will give a new outbreak of infection of the bushes.
It is especially important to fix the first relocation of the larvae of the kidney currant tick. They are visible to the naked eye during this period. After processing the bushes, in the future, monitor the temperature and observe the processing interval. For example: the temperature is maintained in the range of + 20 ... 25 ° C - the interval of treatments after 8-10 days.The currant kidneys affected by a currant kidney mite.
Use of pesticides against kidney currant tick
"Lovers" of quick action, you can offer several chemicals for treating plants.
Ticks are arachnids, so they are not destroyed by insecticidal drugs, but by acaricidal and insectoacaricidal.
Please note! Using chemicals if used improperly can be harmful to your health. Therefore, it is necessary:
- observe personal safety measures (gloves, glasses, a hat, a respirator or a multi-layer dressing, dressing gown);
- clearly follow the requirements of the instructions;
- it is recommended to alternate preparations with spring and autumn use so as not to cause an addictive effect.
The most vulnerable period for kidney currant ticks is the relocation of larvae to new places. In the phase of budding and leaf blooming, the first wave of hatched larvae of the kidney currant mite enters the open space.
Movement to new territories lasts 2-3 weeks. It is during this period that you need to carry out a minimum of 2 sprayings with an interval of 8-12 days.
Of the pesticides against kidney currant mite, acaricidal preparations are used during this period:
- Forbid 4F;
The next period of using pesticides against kidney currant mites is the treatment of bushes after a full harvest (so that children do not eat such delicious last berries from the bushes). It is recommended at this moment to use acaricidal drugs with a stronger effect:
- Sun Might;
Sulfur treatment with currant
Of the sulfur preparations against kidney currant mite, colloidal sulfur (Sulfaride), karbofos are used. They can process bushes and soil around until flowering ends. A solution of colloidal sulfur is prepared at the rate of 10 g of the drug, and malathion 75 g per 10 l of water. Sulfur is far from a harmless drug and, at the dosage used, can cause burns of young leaves and their litter. Therefore, re-spraying (after flowering) is carried out with a solution with a concentration of 2 times less. The highest efficiency from processing currant bushes with colloidal sulfur solutions is manifested at temperatures not lower than + 20 ° С.
Currants form a crop in a short time, and the effect of the drug can last a long time. Therefore, chemical preparations are used once, only in the phase of bud extension and the beginning of mass budding. Further use of pesticides is prohibited. A transition to the use of more sparing means for human health in the destruction of pests is necessary.
The use of biological products against kidney currant tick
Bioacaricides can serve as such means. They are developed on the basis of positive strains of fungi and bacteria and are harmless to humans. Along with a large list of the positive properties of bioacaricides and bioinsectoacaricides, there are limitations in their use. The main thing is that the drug is effective at elevated temperatures (+ 15 ... + 19ºС). In windy cold weather, which often happens in early spring, they are useless. If the spring is early, it has high temperatures, the use of acaricidal drugs is highly effective.
Of the bioacaricides the most famous are:
- phyto farm;
The drugs are used with an interval depending on the ambient temperature, until flowering ends and after harvesting. Drugs must be alternated. They are well compatible in tank mixtures with biofungicides. However, before preparing the tank mixture, it is necessary to check the preparations for compatibility, especially new ones. Dilution and processing methods are indicated on the packaging. Do not deviate from recommendations; independence will not bring success.Affected by a currant kidney mite, currant buds on a bush.
The use of folk recipes against kidney currant tick
Some experienced gardeners against kidney currant ticks recommend treating plants with infusion in the cold spring before the possibility of using bioacaricidal preparations:
- onion peel;
- green coverings of walnuts or winter infusion of their fallen leaves.
You can plant berry bushes with garlic or perennial onions. Ticks disgust their smell. They lose the ability to breed. But when using chemicals to treat bushes, garlic and onions are not recommended for food.
The use of herbal preparations in pest control is not a panacea. For a while, they can slow down the reproduction of the pest, but not destroy it.
Save the environment!
The oldest way to destroy pests was invented by nature itself. Each pest has in nature natural enemies, entomophages, which effectively reduce the number of plant pests. Be attentive to the small workers of orchards and berry plants.When using chemicals, remember that you are destroying beneficial fauna.
Mites effectively destroy beneficial insects:
- ladybug (stethors);
- carnivorous bug;
- carnivorous tick;
- chalcides (insect riders);
- female fly and others.
More details on herbivorous ticks can be found in the article "Ticks - herbivorous garden pests."
Dear readers! You have familiarized yourself with the main methods of destroying the kidney currant tick, which causes significant harm to berry crops. Not all methods are harmless to humans, animals, beneficial insects. Before using any of the drugs proposed in the article or purchased, carefully familiarize yourself with its action and decide whether its use is suitable for you. The choice is yours. Offer us your ways to protect the berry from this and other pests in the comments on this material.