Anthracnosis is a dangerous plant disease. Imperfect fungi Kabatiella, Colletotrichum, Gloeosporium cause it. These mushrooms can pretty much spoil crops such as watermelons, pumpkins, legumes, grapes, zucchini, melons, cucumbers and even citrus fruits. In addition, anthracnose affects walnuts, almonds, dear and close berry bushes - currants, raspberries and gooseberries. This problem is a big topic that many scientists are working on, but we will try to tell you as short and interesting as possible about how anthracnose (copperfish) manifests itself in a particular culture, how to deal with it, or, perhaps, to manage one only prevention. So anthracnose ...Anthracnose on tomato leaves.
Description of Anthracnose
Both a person of various kinds of diseases, and plant organisms are usually affected when they have weakened immunity, that is, there is no protection. In this situation, this disease can get into a weak plant through wounds or surface cracks, and it can also be transmitted through seed material obtained from already infected plants or from a part of dead plants. Anthracnose spores are easily transmitted by wind at decent distances, can be carried by insects, water, that is, drops of rain, dew or irrigation moisture. The disease develops most actively, and it appears most often precisely when increased humidity of air or soil is observed.
Signs of Anthracnose
Anthracnose usually begins with a leaf lesion: spots are formed on it, usually of a reddish-brownish color with a rim, which, as usual, differs in darker color, may be slightly yellow or darker. Over time, in general, unremarkable spots become more and more, growing so much that they literally connect with each other.
Further, sometimes symptoms of anthracnose are also observed simultaneously on the branches, as well as on the shoots. Usually these are literally depressed areas through which nutrients are either delayed or not passed at all. Most often, these areas have the appearance of light brown oblong spots, which every day become larger and larger, deeper, darker, and at the final stage, a brownish or dark purple rim forms around these depressed spots.
If the weather is dry and rather warm, then all the places affected by anthracnose are usually covered with noticeable cracks, but if it rains and the air is literally saturated with moisture, then the affected stems and shoots begin to actively collapse, they literally rot, break at the slightest touch or a gust of wind.
If the disease is ignored, then the leaf will turn brown, dry out, and then literally the whole aerial part of the plant will die. As we already mentioned, anthracnose most actively develops in conditions of increased or excessive humidity. Here is the ideal combination for the development of anthracnose: air temperature +23 degrees, humidity about 87-88%, there is little potassium, phosphorus in the soil and a high acid content - under such conditions, plants are simply doomed to get anthracnose. We will treat the copperfish.Anthracnose on the leaves and fruits of a cucumber.
How to deal with anthracnose?
So, not everything is so bad, and, fortunately, a lot is treated. We know that the nature of anthracnose is fungal, therefore, it is possible to fight it with the help of antifungal drugs (fungicides). Drugs change from year to year, a number of drugs are banned, but we will give examples of the most effective anti-anthracnose drugs: Kuproksat, Oksikhom (quite safe, based on copper, but may not help), Acrobat MC, copper chloride itself, Ridomil Gold, Previkur, Coming soon, Fundazole.
Do not hope that these drugs are omnipotent and will destroy anthracnose in just one treatment, it will be good if they can help at all: usually it will take two or three treatments with an interval of one week. By the way, it is quite permissible to change the preparations, not to process the same and pay attention to precipitation outside the window. So, if after processing it rained, then all the work, obviously, will be in vain.
To inhibit the spread of infection, microbiological preparations, such as Gamair and Fitosporin-M, are more environmentally friendly.
Important! Please check the list of approved drugs, everything changes very quickly. Always read the instructions on the package regarding the hazard class of the drug. Even if the hazard class is third, that is, the drug is not considered to be very dangerous, still wear a respirator and gloves when working with it. Considering that anthracnose also affects indoor plants, after processing take them to ventilated terraces and balconies. Remember, chemistry is not a joke, and on the package it is often indicated in detail what to do with the drug, that is, doses, dates, periods before harvesting, and so on. It is very important.
Anthracnosis disease - prevention
Prevention is the best treatment (golden words). It must be firmly remembered that the causative agents of infection can already be on the seed that you hold in your hands, on any garden tools that almost no one ever disinfects, but does not wash, as well as in irrigation water (for example, good old black barrel painted in the garden), as well as on wings or other parts of the body of insects.
As soon as humidity rises and the conditions mentioned above arise, microorganisms are immediately activated, the disease itself begins to progress. In order to build up protection against anthracnose, it is necessary to observe crop rotation, always disinfect the seeds before sowing, even if they are collected by your own hands, remove plant residues from the garden and orchard, and it is advisable to dig the soil so that large clods do not collapse, then the infection hidden in the soil , has every chance of freezing.
Garden tools, if you do not care that they can be infected, then at least think about their safety because of the price (expensive, however): you just need to wash, dry and wrap with oiled paper, putting them dry and clean a place.
When copulating and budding, do not be lazy to take 10-15 g of ordinary alcohol with you, after each cut of the eye or cut in the tree, wipe the knife blade with a cloth dipped in alcohol. So you will not spread the infection.
It is quite acceptable to carry out barrage treatments with fairly safe drugs. For example, in early spring, when the plants are still sleeping, you can treat them with Topsin-M, pouring Zircon, Epin or Immunocytophyte (1-2 ml) of growth stimulator into it, and the infection may not appear at all.Anthracnose on a branch of an apple tree.
Signs of Anthracnose
Now that we have generally talked about anthracnose, let's talk a little about the signs of its manifestation in the main cultures, including flower cultures, and we will name approximate options for combating this disease.
The leaf, stem, fruit of the plant suffers from it, and already in a young, seedling period. It is possible to notice the manifestation of anthracnose on a tiny seedling of a cucumber in the area of its root neck, there will be visible indented spots that will turn into ulcers, and the seedlings will simply lie down. In adult plants, yellow or brown spots will appear at the edges of the leaves, first a couple of millimeters in size, and then they will quickly increase tens of times.
As a result, through holes are formed in place of the spots, and the fungus, losing interest in the leaves, switches to stems, completing its dirty work with fruits, on which brown spots form, extending several millimeters in depth. If anthracnose is found in the basal region, 10-15 g of 1% Bordeaux liquid or 0.5% Abiga-Peak solution should be poured under the plants, but the soil must be well watered in advance. One treatment, as a rule, is not enough, you need to spend two or three of them. On leaves pour copper oxychloride or poliram (instructions on the package).
Typically, adult tomatoes suffer from anthracnose: first, the upper leaves fade, as if from a lack of moisture, then spots with black sclerotia form on them. On the fruits, black and indented areas of about a centimeter are usually clearly visible, blackening and softening with time. Professionals advise using drugs such as Poliram, Tiovit Jet, Cumulus-DF to combat anthracnosis, as well as using colloidal sulfur, Bordeaux liquid or copper chloroxide.
Anthracnose can affect both tubers and plant stems. On stems these are usually light brown spots, on tubers - a blurry-shaped spot of dark brown color. If you “blink” and put such a tuber in storage, then it can spoil the entire batch, since it will develop and begin to spread further wet rot. It is difficult to overcome anthracnose on potatoes, it is much easier to grow it in one place every four years, to process tubers before planting with fungicides, to remove weeds, especially "classmates", and after harvesting to remove all plant debris from the site. After that, deeply digging the soil without loosening, leave it for the winter.
This disease in zucchini affects the entire aerial part and the plant dies. If yellow-brown spots are found on the leaf blades, treat the plants with a solution of colloidal sulfur. At the zucchini, I myself checked and made sure of the effectiveness, I need to use 50 g of colloidal sulfur in a bucket of water, treating all parts of the plant affected by anthracnose with this solution. A neighbor in the country treated with Bordeaux liquid, took 1%, no more, said that it was also very effective.
Anthracnose watermelon and melon
Usually, the stems of watermelons and melons are most affected by anthracnose; they become excessively fragile. Affected fruits do not grow, do not accumulate sugars. On diseased fruits, dented spots that rot rot are clearly visible. If signs of anthracnose are found, the plants must be treated with cuproxate three times, strictly following the dosages indicated on the package. The first time - during the beginning of the growth of the lashes, the second - as soon as the ovary begins to form, and the third - two weeks after the second treatment. But here it is important not to delay the treatments: from the last treatment of the season to harvesting, 25 days should pass, no less.Anthracnose on a watermelon Anthracnose on zucchini.
Anthracnose treatment on shrubs and trees
The first thing anthracnose manifests itself on the very bottom sheets, there are clearly visible brown spots, which increase in size very quickly. Further, the leaves dry and fall off, and the disease switches to shoots, forming depressed spots on them, which become just wounds. As a result, whitish ulcers appear on the berries. As a rule, it is not possible to save the crop, but in autumn it is useful to treat the bushes with Nitrafen solution or 1% with the Dnok drug, after which the soil should be dug up and these treatments repeated in early spring.
For the next season, as soon as the entire crop is harvested, you can treat the bushes with 1-2% Bordeaux liquid or fungicides, if the plants were again affected - these are Tiovil Jet and Cumulus-DF,
In fact, all the same actions as on currants, only more accurately with the ripening time so that the preparations do not fall on the berries intended for collection.
On raspberries, the beginning of anthracnose is small rounded, gray-blue spots on the leaves and sores on the shoots. Modern fungicides help well, a 1% Bordeaux liquid or a solution of copper chloroxide, in the amount of 40 g per bucket of water (norm per square meter of raspberry) can help.
Anthracnose rarely attacks grapes, but, as they say, aptly. It develops literally on all the aerial organs of the plant, however, only young tissues, whose age is not more than a month, suffer from it. First, grayish spots with a red or dark border appear on the leaves, which grow, increasing by a factor of two, after which the sheet tissue simply falls out and a through hole forms.
At the same time, brownish spots are visible on the shoots, and ulcers on the inflorescences, which leads to their death. Those involved in the grape write that it can be cured by treating with the usual 1% Bordeaux liquid, but you cannot delay the treatment of anthracnose. The next year, without waiting for a second outbreak, the plants again need to be treated with 1% Bordeaux fluid as soon as the shoots reach a length of 10 cm.
Naturally, serious growers also use more serious preparations such as Abig-Peak, Previkur, Fundazol, Ordan, Skor, and some of them are helped by ordinary copper sulfate: apparently, it all depends on the cultivation zone.
Anthracnose strawberries (wild strawberries)
On strawberries, garden anthracnose can “mow” up to 85% of the total crop, that is, negate all thoughts of it. The most interesting thing is that it often proceeds literally invisibly and only when the plant is prepared for another world, signs of infection appear: on the antennae and in the upper part of the leaf small pressed heels of scarlet-brown color form, they merge into ulcers and the foliage dies. To protect against anthracnose, fungicides must be used, and treatment should be carried out three or four times during the flowering period. Drugs such as Signum can help, a good Italian product that has been tried on my site.
Anthracnose suddenly appears on cherries in the middle of summer; on the berries dry to the touch and fairly hard spots appear that can, overgrown, capture the entire surface of the fruit. It helps to prevent the manifestation of anthracnose on cherries in the annual sanitary pruning and spring treatment of the plant with 1% Bordeaux fluid until the buds are awake. Earlier, lime milk helped me in my garden, I took a couple of kilograms of lime and dissolved in a bucket of water, after which I processed all the plants with this solution.
They say that if each year 150-200 g of wood ash is added to the ciricula circle, then anthracnose will not appear.
Immediately after you remove everything to the last berry, treat the plants with a solution of copper sulfate, for each tree you need 100 g of copper sulfate diluted in a bucket of water. After falling off the foliage, be sure to remove all of it and treat the plants by dissolving 200 g of urea in a bucket of water.Anthracnose on strawberry leaves. Anthracnose on the grape. Anthracnose on raspberries.
Anthracnose on flowers
First, small brown spots appear on the edges of the leaves, then they grow and eventually merge with each other and the leaf dies. It is better to remove all affected organs from the diseased plant, after which it should be transplanted into fresh soil, and treated with any of the permitted fungicides on the open and ventilated terrace (Skor, Previkur and others).
Anthracnose on an orchid
The spots on the leaves are like a stigma, and the edges are as if burnt. Loose formations are visible at the base of the leaf blades. Try to cut off all affected parts and cover live tissue with crushed coal. The substrate requires a mandatory replacement. On the ventilated terrace, treat orchids with Fitosporin-M, Trichodermin and Bactofit.
Anthracnose on cacti
Cacti suffer from anthracnose only if they are heavily poured, it is difficult to cure the cacti. Usually, dented spots with a bright border (signs of anthracnose) are simply cut with a sharp knife, capturing healthy tissue, and treated with finely ground coal. Next, you need to stop watering for at least a month, the fungus must die, and the cactus survive.Anthracnose on a cactus.
Here is a list of the freshest permitted drugs for anthracnose (fungicides), here they are with their shortest description:
- Abiga Peak is a contact fungicide containing copper. The spectrum of action is wide, not only for anthracnose.
- Acrobat Mc - a systemic local drug, with its help you can heal plants from many fungal diseases.
- Previkur - a systemic drug that also has restoring growth activity.
- Ridomil Gold - a systemic drug, with its help you can defeat not only anthracnose.
- Coming soon - systemic fungicide, can be used both for prevention and for treatment, including scab, late blight, and other diseases.
- Tiovit Jet - contact fungicide, which also functions as an acaricide, can kill ticks (based on sulfur).
- Topsin-M - This is a systemic fungicide, it can be used both for the treatment of anthracnose and for the prevention of this disease. You can cultivate them and the soil.
- Trichodermin - a drug from a series of biological fungicides, can also be both therapeutic and prophylactic, they can also process the soil, thereby healing it.
- Fitosportin-M - also a biological fungicide, which, however, has a contact effect, toxicity to humans and beneficial insects is negligible.
- Fundazole - the broadest systemic fungicide, often used as a seed dressing, can treat and protect, but pests quickly get used to it.
- Gates - fights most fungal infections and (most interesting) is considered resistant to atmospheric precipitation.
- Quadris - systemic fungicide, can be used as a prophylactic and therapeutic agent against fungal infections.
- Cuproxate - here he is just wonderfully fighting grape anthracnosis and is almost the best drug of those containing copper.
- The order - A good contact systemic fungicide used to combat a whole complex of fungal diseases.
So, we told you about anthracnose, if you missed something, do not judge strictly, ask questions in the comments and we will answer them!