Even modern gooseberry varieties obtained in the 21st century, included in the State Register, zoned in a particular region, quite often get sick or are affected by a variety of pests. Fortunately, at the moment there are a huge number of means to combat the enemies of the crop, both chemical and folk (by the way, no less effective). Let's talk today about the most dangerous and common diseases and pests of gooseberries, as well as measures to combat them.Gooseberry disease.
Powdery Mildew on Gooseberries
Let's start with gooseberry diseases. The most common disease that cannot be completely defeated is powdery mildew. From time to time, this disease, which can affect all parts of gooseberries, including berries, appears even on varieties resistant to it.
Powdery mildew is a fungal disease that develops most actively when warm and humid. To protect your plot from this scourge, do not thicken the planting, you need to carry out sanitary pruning, cut the shoots thickening the crown, water the plants moderately and remove fruits and other plant debris from the bite zone.Powdery mildew on gooseberries.
However, sometimes even all of these protection methods do not save, and powdery powdery white color still appears on the fruits and leaf blades of gooseberries. If the number of affected fruits and leaves is negligible, then they can simply be cut and burned. In the case when most of the leaf blades are affected, it is necessary to immediately begin treatment with fungicides.
When treating gooseberries, be sure to follow the instructions on the package when a particular fungicide can be used. Typically, all chemical treatments must be completed at least a couple of weeks before harvesting. Be sure to find out the hazard class of the fungicide, whether it is dangerous for bees, and if there is an apiary nearby, then treatments must be carried out with those fungicides whose hazard class is not higher than three.
What will happen if you do not fight powdery mildew? Then the powdery spots on the leaves of the gooseberry will begin to grow, the size of the fruit may not change, but the fruit will begin to rot. Later, the spores will ripen, the plaque will turn gray, and with the first gust of wind, the spores will fly to a great distance, infecting neighboring plants or even other crops, for example, currants.
In addition, even with foliage falling from untreated plants in the autumn, powdery mildew from the site will not go anywhere, it will fall into the soil, linger in the bark, fallen leaves and attack the plants again in spring, which will ultimately lead to their death.
What to do if powdery mildew on gooseberries was discovered when it is not possible to use fungicides in a matter of days before harvesting? In this case, folk remedies will help.
Good reviews come from gardeners who fight powdery mildew with treatments with a mixture of soda and soap.
To obtain a solution in a bucket of water, you need to dissolve 6-7 g of soda and 50-60 g of antibacterial soap grated on a fine grater. With this solution, all affected plants should be carefully treated.
After harvesting, be sure to treat all plants with fungicides, and in autumn, loosen the soil in the near-chest zone and treat the plants with fungicides again.
Read our detailed material: Effective powdery mildew control measures in fruit crops.
This disease appears on gooseberries quite often. It usually appears on leaf blades, as well as on flowers and ovaries. Initially, these are either small blisters of an orange color - goblet rust, or small yellow spots that appear only on the top of the leaf blades - columnar rust.
Fungicides (this is a fungal disease) or treatment with a 1% solution of Bordeaux fluid are also effective against rust - if there is little time left before harvesting.
The next year after the appearance of rust on gooseberries, it is necessary to re-treat the plants. The first treatment should be done as soon as the leaf blades bloom, the second - at the time of bud formation, the third - after flowering. With severe damage to plants by rust, a fourth treatment can also be carried out.
Read our detailed material: Rust on fruit trees and shrubs.
This is another fungal disease that usually affects the gooseberry leaf blades especially severely. Initially, they can detect small, slightly vague spots with a dark brown color. Over time and the progression of the disease, these spots begin to merge, which leads to premature drying of the leaf blades and their subsidence. Anthracnose usually does not touch the leaves on the tops of the shoots, they remain intact.
Gooseberry bushes infected with anthracnose stop developing, shoot growth stops, the taste of berries deteriorates noticeably, and there are very few berries themselves.
How to deal with gooseberry anthracnose? To begin with, it is necessary to collect and destroy the fallen leaves annually, loosen the soil in the near-mouth area, often check the leaf blades for infection, and if you see single leaflets with spots, then immediately tear them off and burn them. If spots are found on a large number of leaf blades, it is necessary to treat the plants with copper sulfate, dissolving 45-50 g of this substance in a bucket of water.
If the disease attacks your plants from year to year, then you should not wait for its appearance, plants need to be treated with 1% Bordeaux liquid and more than once, but four or even five, starting in early spring. It is necessary to carry out processing immediately after the leaf blades open, before flowering, after flowering, a couple of weeks after flowering and immediately after the harvest.
Anthracnose on gooseberry leaves.
Read our detailed material: Anthracnose is a dangerous disease.
Typically, with septoria, gooseberry leaves are also the most affected. Initially, a couple or several more spots may appear on them, having a rounded shape and a grayish color with a noticeable dark border. Further, dark dots form on the surface of the spots, these are foci of mature spores with an infection that is ready to scatter over a long distance. After the appearance of ripened spores, the leaf blades usually begin to dry out, curl and crumble or fall off. Usually, bushes lose up to 95% of the total leaf mass much earlier than the due date.
How to fight? Be sure to collect all fallen leaves, other plant debris and burn. Loosen the soil in the near-bark zone both in autumn and spring. Treat with fungicides, Bordeaux liquid and vitriol, as well as against anthracnose.
In addition, septoria is particularly active in attacking plants when there is a lack of manganese, copper, zinc and boron in the soil; therefore, it is necessary to ensure that these trace elements are normal in the soil.Gooseberry Septoria.
Mosaic is a viral infection from which there is no escape. Mosaic-affected plants need to be uprooted and burned as quickly as possible. How to understand that this is a mosaic? Usually on the leaf blades of diseased plants in high season you can see a clearly visible bright yellow “pattern”, which is usually located along the main veins. After its appearance, the plants seem to stop in growth and development, practically do not form fruits, the leaves become very small and wrinkled.
Further - gooseberry pests.
Aphid is a small sucking insect that usually lives in colonies - large or small, is often carried by ants that feed on its sweet secretions and sucks out juice from young shoots and leaf blades, which leads to severe deformation, twisting and stunting. In addition, aphids can be a carrier of diseases, such as mosaics.
It is not easy to find the aphid itself, however, you can easily notice leaflets and deformed shoots starting to curl. It is worth turning the gooseberry leaf or inspecting the shoot, as you will see aphid colonies. As we have already mentioned, ants are often responsible for the appearance of aphids, so if there is an ant hill on the site, then you will first have to remove it from the site, and then take up aphids. With a small amount of aphids, growths with it can be cut and destroyed, if aphids are many, then insecticides must be used.
In addition to chemistry, aphids on gooseberries can be combated with folk remedies - treat the plants with a soap solution (dilute 250 g of antibacterial soap in a bucket of water).
Aphids on young gooseberry leaves.
Read our detailed material: Aphids. How to deal with the worst pest?
On the gooseberry, you can find caterpillars of many pests. For example, in early spring, as soon as the leaves begin to bloom, they are attacked by the gooseberry sawfly caterpillars. These are individuals of green or bluish-green color with black spots on the body, with ten pairs of legs.
Caterpillars with a large number are able to gobble up the entire leaf apparatus of a single bush in 7-8 days, so you need to fight them immediately. If there are one or two gooseberry bushes on the plot, then the caterpillars can be collected manually, if there are a lot of bushes and caterpillars, then the latter can be destroyed using insecticides. From folk remedies of control, you can use infusions of tobacco, mustard or other crops with the mandatory addition of soap.
Another caterpillar - gooseberry moth - is also very voracious and also very willingly destroy the gooseberry leaf apparatus. The caterpillars reach a length of 3-4 cm and have a very noticeable bright yellow color with stripes and specks of black color.
To destroy the pest, in addition to using insecticides, you can set sticky pheromone traps on the site for hunting butterflies, and try to destroy the caterpillars with folk remedies: treat the plants with infusion of wood ash or soot. To do this, you can take three kilograms of well-sifted and ground to a state of powder of wood ash or soot, put in a bucket and pour water. Let it brew for two days, then strain, add 45-50 g of soap and treat the plants.
Another harmful caterpillar is the gooseberry moth larva. In length, individuals reach 1.5 cm and have a gray-green color, a black head and round black spots with glitter on the barrels. Caterpillars harm not leaf blades, but ovaries, eating them. In fact, one caterpillar destroys up to six future berries. Caterpillars can be collected manually, and with a large number - to destroy insecticides. They say that the mint is scared away by the mint planted next to the gooseberry - it's worth a try.Caterpillars eat gooseberry leaves.
It has been established that the glass case can affect not only currants, but also gooseberries. Usually they notice the result of the activity of the glass-box by suddenly fading shoots; if you cut them off, you can see a black spot in the center, these are the remains of the caterpillar that moved in the center of the shoot eating the contents - its core. As a rule, caterpillars move along shoots from top to bottom, penetrating through cracks in which the butterfly lays eggs.
Gooseberry treatments should be carried out precisely against an insect, which is surprisingly similar to a wasp and very accurately copies its habits. From May to early June, it is necessary to carry out treatments with biological preparations - Lepidocide (30 g per 10 l of water) and Bitoxibacillin (100 g per 10 l of water), as well as with Fitoverm (2 ml per 10 l of water) ) In addition, it is necessary after cutting to always isolate the slices with garden var.Currant glass larva in a damaged branch.
Currant gall midges are also harmful to gooseberries, and there are three species at once - shoot, flower and leaf, affecting the corresponding organs of the plant. Gall midges are especially active in thickened gooseberry stands. You can notice them only when the larvae begin to destroy the organs of the plant into which the gall midges laid their eggs. The control of larvae is carried out with the help of insecticides, and gall midges themselves, in addition, can be caught with pheromone traps located in the area.
As a prophylaxis in the spring of next season, the treatment of plants and soil with insecticides can be repeated.
Of the natural measures to combat the larvae of gall midges, it is possible to call the treatment of infusion of tomato tops. To prepare it, you need to put five kilograms of fresh tops of tomato plants in a container, pour a bucket of water at room temperature and let it brew for about a day. Then strain the solution, add a half of the laundry soap, dissolve it well in this composition and you can proceed with the treatments, conducting them 2-3 times with alternating in a couple of days.
It is also noted that the aroma of mint repels gall midges, so areas with gooseberries can be varied with mint plants.
Gooseberry Preventive Treatments
As you know, a disease or the appearance of a pest is sometimes much easier to prevent than to cure, so do not forget about prevention. Of course, it is necessary to begin protective measures even before the gooseberry is planted on the site, for which it is advisable to choose a site with clean soil on which the gooseberry did not grow before.
The place under the gooseberry must be chosen open and even, without depressions, and the bushes should be placed so that they do not obscure or interfere with each other. It is necessary to carry out trimming, often thinning the crown and not allowing it to thicken.
From the spread of infection helps early spring treatment of plants with hot water, heated to + 70 ... + 75 ° C. With this water from a watering can you need to properly water the bushes at the very end of March or early April. Buckets of water are usually enough for 3-4 bushes, depending on their age.
Do not forget about the collection and destruction of plant debris - branches, leaves, fruits.
Often mulch the soil around the gooseberry bush and change the mulch once a month, so that even if the butterfly laid eggs there, they were destroyed when the mulch layer was replaced with a new one.
When pruning, always isolate the cut points with garden varieties so that the glass box does not penetrate the shoots.
Do not forget about preventative treatments. So, in early spring, you can treat gooseberry bushes with 3% Bordeaux liquid, and after flowering with 1% Bordeaux liquid, this is a good prevention of fungal diseases.
To protect plants from powdery mildew in the summer, you can treat them with a solution of soda and soap (50 g of soda and 50 g of soap in a bucket of water). Processing can be carried out 2-3 times during the summer with a break of 10-15 days.
After harvest for the prevention of anthracnose, plants can be treated with 1% Bordeaux fluid.
In autumn, be sure to loosen the near-chest zone, water the bushes, mulch the surface with peat or humus.