Autumn time is the time of completion of not only the vegetative period of plants, but also the preparation of garden crops for winter. And here you should not hope for good luck. It is necessary to help the berry shrubs get away in the winter cold correctly. Feed in time, cut, charge with moisture, mulch the trunk circle, and where necessary - hide under warm winter shelters. This will allow the garden to maintain health and significantly reduce the numerous spring worries.Autumn berry shrub care
Let's look at what the raspberries, black, red, white and golden currants, gooseberries, blueberries, yoshta, irga, honeysuckle need in the autumn months. How to prepare them for the rest period? How to use the coming cold in their favor, as a disease prevention and protection from pests?
Features of caring for raspberries in the fall depend on the general principles of crop care selected and applied by the gardener. Someone else in the summer cut out shoots on their raspberries, and someone had time for this just now. In any case, at the end of the growing season, the culture must be examined with a secateurs in hand: remove damaged and diseased shoots, thin out. With a covering form of cultivation, group the bushes and bend them to the ground, and after the onset of frost - cover with lutrasil.
Read more about the rules for pruning raspberries in our material.
If raspberries have been planted in well-tilled planting trenches or pits, there is no need to feed them for five years. If plantings need to be fed, then just in the fall, you can make fertilizers under raspberries (superphosphate 60 g / bush and potassium salt 40 g / bush) or rotted manure (4-5 kg / m2).
It is worth removing the old mulch and leaf litter in the raspberry tree for the winter, especially if diseases were observed on the culture. Loosening the earth in rows, digging up the area between rows to a depth of 15 cm. However, the root system after injury needs two weeks to recover, so loosening must be done in advance, before frost.
Before frosts, water-loading irrigation should also be carried out. It will give raspberry roots a charge of moisture and somewhat slow down the freezing of the soil. Saves the root system from freezing and fresh mulch - it is placed under the plants with the arrival of negative temperatures.
Read more about the rules for caring for raspberries in the fall in our article.
Blackcurrant in the autumn months needs special attention. In September, they cut it. Healthy lignified twigs, annuals, are cut from the uterine bush, from two-, three-year-old shoots, pencil-thick. Leave for cuttings 15-20 cm and either put away for storage, or drip at an angle of 45 ° so that only the upper kidney remains above the ground.
They are fed with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers: ash (200-300 g per bush), humus, compost, superphosphate, potassium salt in combination with potassium sulfate (20 and 30 g, respectively).
After falling leaves, they begin to prune. Sharp, secateurs cut out broken, drooping to the ground, intertwined, affected by diseases and tend to grow inside shoots. As a rejuvenation, branches older than 3 years are cut. Remove the zero shoots. After pruning, the crown of the bush should consist of 9-12 branches, some of which are new (zero or replacement shoots), and some are annuals. Such pruning allows blackcurrant to fully form the crop and slows down the aging of the bush, prolonging its good fruiting.
Preparing currants for winter, they collect leaves from under the bushes, loosen the trunk circle to a depth of 6-9 cm. This technique acts as a good prevention against wintering forms of pests and diseases.
Important for blackcurrant and water-charging irrigation. It must be carried out before the frost. But the high hilling (12 cm) of the bushes should be carried out only after a cold snap - this agricultural method will not only protect the roots from the cold, preserve moisture, but also play a role in the fight against fire.
If the plantings of currants this year were severely affected by aphids, you can treat them with Fitoverm, and against various other fungal diseases with a 3% solution of Bordeaux liquid or 1% solution of copper sulfate.
Read more about the rules for caring for blackcurrant in the fall in our article.
Red and white currants
Cutting of red and white currants is carried out in August, so in the fall, pruning remains the main task of caring for crops. However, in this case, they approach it somewhat differently than with respect to blackcurrant.
Cutting red and white currants, focus on the growth of branches. If it is full, about 30 cm - the branches do not touch, they are able to give a good harvest. If weak, up to 15 cm, such branches are removed. In addition, as a rejuvenation of the bush, clippings of branches older than 8 years are carried out. And as a sanitary pruning, all shoots striving to grow inside the crown, to the ground, having a break, dry, affected by diseases are removed.
A mandatory fall technique for these crops is annual feeding. The general rule is that nitrogen is prohibited, only the mineral phosphorus-potassium group, as well as ash, compost, and well-rotten manure.
In preparation for winter, both red and white currants need water-charging irrigation, cleaning leaves, loosening the soil, and when cold weather sets in, they need high hilling (12 cm). Hilling in this case is carried out both as an event from frost, and with the aim of combating the fire.
If the bushes hurt, it is worthwhile to treat the branches and the ground with a 3% solution of Bordeaux fluid, 1% solution of copper sulfate or 7% solution of urea. Against pests, Fitoverm or any other broad-spectrum insecticide is used.Cutting of red and white currants is carried out in August
Autumn is the best time to cut gooseberries. In the spring, his buds wake up very early, and therefore it is quite difficult to manage to trim before the sap flow. After falling leaves from adult gooseberry bushes, in order to thin, heal and remove shading as much as possible, damaged, diseased, adjacent to the ground, thickening crown, interwoven branches are removed. Branches older than 7 years are cut. Since the crop gives the main crop on 3-6 year old branches, it is ensured that the bush has shoots of different ages: removing unproductive branches, leave the same number of young shoots for substitution.
In early autumn, gooseberries are cutted. If in the spring the bushes were dug for rooting, they are separated from the mother plant and either planted in a permanent place, or if the root system is not sufficiently developed, they are planted on a separate bed for growing.
In order to prevent diseases and pests, the gooseberry root zone is freed from leaves and weeds, loosened to a depth of 6 cm. Ample water-charging irrigation is carried out, and with cold cooling - high hilling, up to 12 cm high.
Gooseberries are fed in a year, using phosphorus-potassium fertilizers: potassium salt (20 g) in combination with superphosphate (30 g), wood ash (2-3 glasses per bush).
If during the season the gooseberry bushes were severely affected by aphids, firepit, sawfly in the fall, you can treat them with Fitoverm or any other broad-spectrum insecticide. If fungal diseases were noticed on the leaves, the plant is treated with a 3% solution of Bordeaux fluid, 7% urea solution.
Read more about caring for gooseberries in the fall in our article.
Golden currant is a rather rare inhabitant of garden plots. However, the low prevalence of culture is completely unjustified. Caring for her is simple. She is sick less than her "relatives". Virtually no damage by pests.
A little trouble with golden currants in the autumn months. In autumn you can plant young growth from the main bush. After falling of the foliage - carry out water-charging irrigation, clean and loosen the root zone. If desired, you can carry out sanitary pruning. But the formation of plants is best left in the spring.
Diseases and pests in this species are the same as in ordinary currants. Therefore, if a defeat was observed on the bushes in the summer, treatments with the same drugs can be carried out.
Yoshta appeared from the crossing of currants and several species of gooseberries, but, unlike "relatives", they cut it in the spring. In the fall, only sanitary pruning is carried out, removing old, diseased or infected branches of glass. They dig out rooted rootings during the summer, divide the bush during its transplantation.
In mid-September and until the end of October, cuttings are cut from yoshta. To do this, take semi-lignified branches with a length of 15-20 cm with 5-6 buds. Drip them at an angle of 45 ° so that only 2 kidneys remain above the ground. Then water and mulch.
In the autumn, they continue to water the yoshta, feed it with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers: ash (2-3 glasses per bush), 20 g of potassium salt and 30 g of superphosphate, and the older the plant, the more it needs potassium. Periodically loosening the near-stem circle.
In preparation for winter, foliage is removed under the bushes, and water-loading irrigation is provided. Since the culture is resistant to frost, shelter is usually not used.
Despite the fact that yoshta is less susceptible to disease than her "parents", if there are signs of illness in autumn, she, like gooseberries and currants, is treated with a 3% solution of Bordeaux liquid, 1% solution of copper sulfate or 7 % urea solution.Autumn care for blueberries consists of continued watering, the plant does not like the drying of the soil. © magzquebec
Blueberry - the culture is quite complex, but interesting. Caring for it requires knowledge, but the reward is pleasant - blue berries of an unusual taste with a storehouse of vitamins.
Autumn care for blueberries consists of continued watering, the plant does not like drying out of the soil and therefore it often lacks natural precipitation. The plant requires water-loading irrigation and soil acidity adjustment. Blueberries are pretentious with respect to pH, so in the fall its bushes are mulched with coniferous litter or sawdust of conifers, which is also a shelter of the root zone for the winter.
Pruning on the crop is carried out optionally in two terms - in the spring or after the leaves fall. On the 3rd-4th year of the development of bushes, all weak, too thickened and shoots located near the ground itself are removed from the plants. Form a comfortable crown. Branches older than 4-5 years are completely cut out. Strongly growing twigs pinch.
Blueberries, like other plants, are often affected by diseases. From autumn, bushes are treated against cancer, phomopsis and fungal diseases with a 0.2% Fundazole solution three times a week later, then in the same way in the spring, until the buds open.
The game is a culture not known in all regions, but beloved by many for its particularly useful vitamin composition, as well as its high decorative effect, winter hardiness, drought tolerance, and longevity.
Forming pruning prunus is more often carried out in the spring. Overgrowth is planted or removed in the fall. Dry, diseased branches, shoots, thickening bush are cut. Once every 3-4 years, rejuvenation is performed.
Preparing the plants for winter, they remove the fallen leaves, loosen the near-trunk circle. Starting from the fourth year, organic and mineral dressings are added: 300 g of ash, up to 200 g of potassium sulfate, 200-300 g of superphosphate. During the cold weather, young seedlings are covered with non-woven material or spruce branches. Frosts are not afraid of adult plants, they can easily cope with lowering temperatures to -50 ° C.
Irga rarely gets sick. But, if in the summer on the bushes fungal diseases were noticed in the autumn, it is possible to treat the plants with a 3% solution of Bordeaux liquid or 1% solution of copper sulfate.
A feature of honeysuckle is an early awakening in the spring. For this reason, if the honeysuckle needs to be transplanted to a new place or to divide the bush, do it in the fall. In addition, shrubs are not forgotten to be watered in the fall, as they cannot stand drying out of the soil. And if necessary, trim every few years.
The culture does not have special rules for forming a bush; the main thing is to ensure that plants do not thicken and do not interfere with neighboring plantings. Therefore, after leaf fall, the honeysuckle bush is carefully inspected and strongly twisted shoots, branches growing in the direction of the ground, falling on neighboring plants are removed. In general, the bush should consist of 6-8 well-developed branches.
Once every several years, honeysuckle should be well fed. To do this, ash (several glasses under the bush), compost (bucket), well-rotted manure, potassium salt (20 g) in combination with superphosphate (30 g) are suitable.
A positive characteristic of honeysuckle is resistance to most diseases and pests, however, pathogens affecting other crops can winter in its fallen foliage, so it is better to remove the litter. Due to its high frost resistance, edible honeysuckle varieties do not need shelter.Moisture-charging irrigation helps plants survive the winter and please the hosts with a high yield in the next season. © southwoodgardencenter
The concepts used in the article
Moisture charging irrigation
It is a late autumn watering, when there are almost no leaves left on the plants, by large norms of water. Roughly from 4 to 7 buckets of water are poured under the bush, depending on the intensity of plant development.
Barrel Circle Mulching
Reception retains moisture and contributes to a slower freezing of soil in the root zone. The mulch layer can be different, from 2 to 8 cm, depending on the friability of the material used. For mulching use bark, peat, sawdust, compost, leaves and more.
It is carried out by non-woven material (lutrasil, sponbond) or spruce branches after the onset of stable frosts (-10 ... -15 ° С).
Phosphate Potash Fertilizer Group
These fertilizers are applied under shrubs in September-October. They help plant flower buds in plants, strengthen their immunity, and contribute to the maturation of wood and root growth. This can be superphosphate, potassium salt, potassium sulfate, kalimagnesia, as well as organic matter - ash, compost, well-rotted manure.
Phosphoric and potassium mineral fertilizers are used together, and organic - as an addition. First, according to the projection of the crown of the plant, mineral fertilizers are scattered in the prepared grooves. Close them up. Watered. Then, after a while, organic matter is introduced.