Protecting plants from various diseases in the summer takes the lion's share of the time for summer residents. And not always this struggle ends with a positive result for plants. One of the most harmful diseases affecting gooseberries is American powdery mildew, or the gooseberry sphere library. In this article we will tell you whether it is possible to prevent the disease, and what to do if powdery mildew on the gooseberry still appeared.Powdery mildew on gooseberries - prevention and control methods.
Distinctive features of powdery mildew
The first manifestations of lesions of gooseberry bushes with a spherical library coincide with the onset of bud blooming. On the upper side of the young leaf blade and on the tops of the shoots, a spider-like white coating appears, which gradually grows, compacts and takes on a felt look, dotted with black dots. This is a mycelium with spores.
As it grows, it moves to the entire aerial part of the plant. The mushroom picker throws up viable spores flying under the influence of wind and raindrops. It is this first infection that is most harmful, it affects the leaves and young shoots, ovaries.
If nothing is done, the diseased plant stops its development, the berries crumble even in the process of growth and ripening, the shoots are bent, the bush gradually takes on the form of a sprayed with lime mortar and dies. At the same time, ideal conditions are created on the site for further infection with the spherical library of not only gooseberries, but also other fruitful shrubs.The first manifestations of lesions of gooseberry bushes with a spherical library coincide with the beginning of bud blooming, therefore it is important to carry out preventive spraying of the bushes at this time
Why powdery mildew occurs annually
During the growing season, conidia (spores) are separated from the mycelium. Very small and light (dusty), they are easily carried by the wind over considerable distances and affect healthy bushes of gooseberries and other berries (white, black, pink currants, etc.).
Throughout the entire warm period, there is a re-generation of shoots, branches, bushes. At the same time, at first the plants seem to be absolutely healthy, and the spores safely tolerate the winter and the next year in the spring give rise to a new outbreak of infection.
The main condition for the rapid development of the field library and the defeat of new bushes is the alternation of high humidity (at least 60-80%) and dry, hot weather (+ 25 ... + 30 ° С). If such differences occur during the growth phase of young leaves, the enhanced development of mycelium begins with the formation of conidia.
The incubation period of their development, depending on temperature, ranges from 5-7 days. If rains begin during this period, then the spread of the disease practically does not occur. Conidia remain on the mycelium. But with the cessation of rains, the establishment of warm comfortable weather with optimal air humidity from soil fumes, the pathogen begins to develop intensively. Literally in 2-3 days, the bushes are captured by the sphere library (covered with a white coating of mycelium).
With this combination of weather conditions and rapid infection with a spherical library of new bushes, in no case can plants be fed with nitrogen. Enhanced growth of young leaves from nitrogen fertilizing will ensure rapid growth of the pathogen.
Powdery mildew gooseberry varieties
The main prevention against the sphere library and other diseases is the selection of varieties resistant to this type of disease and adapted to the conditions of the region or even the district.
Breeders today offer the following gooseberry varieties that are resistant to powdery mildew: “Cooperator”, “Eaglet”, “Consul”, “Malachite”, “Black Negus”, “Mashenka”, “Yubileiny”, “Finnish”, “Grushenka” and others .
In recent years, gardeners have shown great demand for non-studded varieties resistant to fungal diseases: Kolobok, Uralsky Grapes, Harlequin, Kuibyshevsky and others.
When planting gooseberry bushes, it is important to maintain a distance between the plants.
Read also our material Gooseberry in my garden - 5 varieties resistant to powdery mildew.
Powdery Mildew Prevention
Simple agricultural practices will help minimize the chances of powdery mildew on gooseberries in the next season:
- When autumn harvesting a section of berry shrubs, be sure to remove fallen leaves and burn;
- Trim bushes and shoots of affected plants annually and destroy them;
- Always use a sanitized tool;
- During the growing season, keep the site clean of weeds, as some of them are prone to damage by fungal diseases, which means that they are involved in the spread of the disease;
- Plant new gooseberry bushes, taking into account their resistance to powdery mildew;
- Avoid thickening the bushes when planting. Between the bushes should be normal air circulation;
- Spend irrigation in the morning so that the bushes dry out in a day. For normal watering (with a hose), water under a bush. But, in general, it is better to use drip irrigation;
- When top dressing, especially in warm, cloudy weather with high humidity, exclude nitrogen top dressing. You can replace them with the introduction of wood ash, phosphorus-potash or a complete complex fertilizer.
Treatment of gooseberries with vitriol or milk solution
Every year, in the early spring, before or after the leaves bloom, treat the bushes with a solution of copper sulfate.
You can replace copper sulfate with annual preventive treatment of gooseberry bushes (and other crops) with a solution of whey or a solution of milk with the addition of iodine. A dairy product has an antiseptic effect only with sufficient sunlight. Therefore, plentiful two-sided spraying (before draining the liquid from the leaves) is carried out at 10-11 hours of the morning, necessarily in sunny weather after 1.5-2 weeks.
The solution is prepared in the following proportions: 2-3 liters of water (no more) and 5-7 drops of iodine are added to 1 liter of whey / milk. At a lower concentration, the solution does not work.
Processing gooseberry bushes with ash infusion
Some gardeners prevent the gooseberry field sphere by treating bushes with an ash solution - during the phase of leaf blooming (before flowering). Around the end of May and beginning of June, the suppression of the disease is combined with this treatment with foliar dressing with micronutrients contained in ash.
The solution is prepared as follows: pure wood ash is diluted with water in a proportion of 1 kg of ash per 10 liters of water. Insist 3-5 days (you can boil for 0.5 hours and cool), stirring 1-2 times a day.
A few tablespoons of grated soap are added to the solution. The solution is thoroughly mixed until the soap dissolves. Filter through several layers of fabric so that the spray bottle does not become clogged. Apply three times spraying with an interval of a day.Water the gooseberries with sprinkling in the morning, so that the bushes can dry out in a day.
Gooseberry powdery mildew control
Protective measures for the defeat of gooseberries with a spherical library can be carried out using chemical, biological and folk remedies.
Use of chemicals
Gooseberries form a crop in a very short time. The waiting period when processing bushes with pesticides lasts up to 30 days or more. Therefore, the use of pesticides in the fight against powdery mildew on gooseberries is not recommended.
The use of biochemical preparations
The safest method to fight this disease is use of biofungicides. These are biological preparations that do not adversely affect the health of people, animals and birds and, when used correctly, provide good yield of high quality berries.
The most popular biofungicides that protect gooseberries from the sphere library are Fitosporin-M (it does not have a waiting period, the berries can be eaten the next day after processing the bush, and it must be washed in clean water before use).
Good results are provided by treatment with Planriz, Gamair, Trichodermin, Pseudobacterin-2. All biological products must be prepared and used for treatment of bushes in accordance with the recommendations.
Folk methods of protecting gooseberries from powdery mildew
Infusion of fresh manure kills pathogenic microflora. Solution preparation: 1 kg of fresh manure is poured with 10 liters of water. Day insist. Filter and process the bushes every 7-10 days until the signs of the disease disappear.
Mixed solution of aspirin and soda. 1 tablespoon of soda + 1 tablet of aspirin + 1 teaspoon of liquid soap + 1 tablespoon of any vegetable oil mixed with 5 liters of water. Freshly prepared solution is treated with gooseberry bushes every 12 days throughout the growing season.
Significantly oppress the sphere decoctions of dry onion peels in the ratio - 200 g per 10 liters of boiling water. Insist 2 days. Spray before and after flowering, as well as after harvesting.
Well disinfects the soil from the spore library spores dry tansy. 30 g of dry grass with flowers pour 10 liters of boiling water. Insist a day. After insisting, boil for 2 hours, cool, strain. To treat the soil under the bushes with the resulting broth in the spring before the leaves bloom and in the fall before the onset of cold weather.