Each gardener knows that quality seedlings are the key to a rich harvest, and if the seedlings are stunted and sluggish, then you can simply forget about a good harvest this year. Any deviations from changes in the normal growth and development of seedlings must be stopped in one way or another - to water, highlight, adjust the temperature and humidity in the room or to make certain fertilizers. That's it about fertilizing seedlings that we’ll talk today. We will talk about the most important nutrients for crops and how to feed those plants, which are usually grown through seedlings.Fertilizer pepper seedlings.
What is the best way to feed seedlings and at what time?
It is generally accepted by gardeners that the most suitable fertilizers for seedlings are complex, that is, containing all three of the most important and familiar components to us, but this is not always justified, because in the soil, especially acquired, however, in the garden, too, one or a couple of these elements is already maybe, and as you know, an excess of fertilizers is hardly less dangerous than its lack. Therefore, we advise you to feed the plants with fertilizing, containing in their composition only one important substance.
Directly applying fertilizers for seedlings containing potassium, phosphorus or nitrogen should be done early in the morning, when the window and the room are pretty cool. When adding nutrition to the soil during additional plant recharge, it is imperative that the fertilizer does not leave drops on the leaves of the seedlings or on its stems, because under the influence of the sun in the future, burns can form at these places, that is, the stems and leaves, which negatively then affect the overall development of a particular seedling plant.
The best nitrogen fertilizers for feeding seedlings
As you know, thanks to nitrogen, protein is synthesized in the plant, seedlings produce chlorophyll. With a lack of nitrogen, the lower leaves of the seedling plant usually acquire a yellowish color, and the plant itself is inhibited in growth and development.
If during the inspection of seedlings you notice such a situation with leaves, then immediately fertilize one of the nitrogen components. Ammonium nitrate (from 26% to 34.4% nitrogen), ammonium sulfate or ammonium sulfate (up to 21% nitrogen), urea (up to 46% nitrogen) or ammonia water (from 16% to 20% nitrogen).
Naturally, for seedlings, fertilizing with fertilizers that are dissolved in water is more effective, nitrogen fertilizers are no exception. When watering (namely watering, and not when applying fertilizers in dry form), the substances needed for seedlings enter the plants faster, and the sheets and the trunk will quickly become normal both in color and in their development.
As for the concentration of fertilizer, it must be reduced by about half compared with that when applied under adult plants. For example, for seedlings you need about one and a half tablespoons of nitrogen fertilizer per bucket of water.
The technique of fertilizing seedlings with nitrogen fertilizers: two hours before applying fertilizers, you need to water the plants, moisten the soil well, then apply fertilizers in a dissolved form and a little loosen the soil after an hour.
The best fertilizers with potassium for seedling nutrition
Maybe not everyone knows that potassium helps seedlings to absorb carbon dioxide from the air, it stimulates the production of sugars, and helps plants acquire immunity. With a lack of potassium, chlorotic spots appear on the very bottom leaves of seedlings, if new sheets are formed, then they are much smaller than the size required for the culture, and their edges, even in young leaves, may already be rusted.
To eliminate potassium starvation, seedlings use the following fertilizers: potassium sulfate or potassium sulfate (up to 50% potassium), kalimagnesia or potassium and magnesium sulfate (up to 30% potassium), potassium monophosphate (up to 33% potassium) and potassium nitrate (up to 44% potassium )
It is most appropriate that the first plant flavoring with potassium-containing substances be carried out after the seedlings form two or three leaves. During this period, approximately 8-9 g of monophosphate can be diluted in a bucket of water, and this amount can be used per square meter of nursery. You can reapply potash fertilizers a week later after a dive, or even after planting the plants in a constant place in the soil or greenhouse, the fertilizer norm can be increased by one or a half grams.
The best fertilizers for seedlings containing phosphorus
As we all know, this element takes an active part in the production of sugars and without its presence, the roots of plants simply cannot normally grow and develop. With a deficiency of phosphorus in the soil, the leaf and stem of the seedlings become darker, sometimes turning purple. After some time, the leaves of the seedlings are twisted or deformed in a different way and may even fall off.
Phosphate fertilizers are best suited for seedlings: simple superphosphate (from 14% to 20% phosphorus), double superphosphate (from 46% to 48% phosphorus), ammophos (up to 52% phosphorus), diammophos (up to 46% phosphorus), metaphosphate potassium (from 55% to 60% phosphorus), phosphorite flour (from 19% to 30% phosphorus), bone meal (from 29% to 34% phosphorus).
With a lack of phosphorus, which is reflected on the leaves and stems of seedlings, you can feed it with simple superphosphate at the rate of 3.5-4 g of the drug per liter of water, this is enough for a square meter of seedlings.
Remember that it is better to feed seedlings with phosphorus only after a dive and when it takes root and its growth is noticeable - that is, new elements of the vegetative part are formed - for example, new leaves. Until the deficiency of phosphorus is completely eliminated, several dressings can be carried out, but between them it is necessary to make an interval equal to one week.Growing seedlings without fertilizers (right) and using fertilizers (left).
What to do to seedlings develop harmoniously?
In order for the seedlings of any culture to develop as harmoniously as possible, and the leaves and stems look as they should be, of optimal length and thickness, it is necessary to fertilize not only with mineral, but also with organic fertilizers. But do not forget - when applying manure, it must be diluted ten times with water, and if you use chicken droppings, then 15-20 times with water, otherwise you can not help the seedlings, but destroy it, that is, simply burn the root system.
Also, do not forget about such wonderful growth stimulants as Kornevin, Epin, Heteroauxin or Zircon; in practice, their reliability and effectiveness has been proven both in terms of increasing immunity, and stimulating growth, and developing “lagging” seedlings or one that has a dive or the transplant has damaged the root system. The main thing is to strictly follow the instructions on the packaging.
How to apply fertilizer for seedlings of various plants?
Now let's talk about which fertilizers are best and in what sequence to feed certain crops grown through seedlings. We decided to highlight the crops most often grown precisely through seedlings, and give an approximate scheme of fertilizer application, which has been tried and works, that is, you can safely use it.
Topping tomato seedlings
The first feeding should be carried out as soon as the plant forms a third true leaf. Here you can add liquid fertilizer, for example, nitroammophoska in the amount of 5 g per bucket of water - the norm per square meter of nursery.
The second top dressing can be carried out two weeks after the picking, you can also make nitroammophoska, but you need to dilute a tablespoon of nitroammophoska in a bucket of water and spend 100 ml for each plant.
The third top dressing can be carried out 14 days after the second, also introducing nitroammophoska in the same concentration.
The fourth top dressing, when the seedlings are already 60 days old, must be carried out using phosphorus-potassium top dressing, for which a tablespoon of simple superphosphate and two tablespoons of soot should be dissolved in a bucket of water, the norm is about a glass for each plant.
Topping seedlings of bell pepper
The first top dressing of bell pepper can be carried out when the plant forms the first true leaf, then you need to make a urea solution, after dissolving a tablespoon of this fertilizer in a bucket of water. This amount is enough per square meter of nursery.
The second dressing can be carried out after 20 days, making the same fertilizer in the same amount.
The third top dressing is usually carried out a week before the seedlings are planted in a permanent place, but here it is better to use double superphosphate in the amount of a tablespoon per bucket of water and a rate of 100 ml for each plant.
Feeding cucumber seedlings
Usually, cucumbers are fed twice when receiving seedlings. The first feeding is made during the period when the plant forms one real leaf, and then 14 days after the first feeding. For cucumbers, it is better to use a complex fertilizer consisting of a teaspoon of urea, a teaspoon of potassium sulfate, a teaspoon of simple superphosphate and all this should be diluted in a bucket of soft water - the consumption rate per square meter of nursery.
Two weeks after the second top dressing, the seedlings can be transplanted to a permanent place and when planting, feed it with an ammophos, adding a teaspoon of fertilizer to each well well mixed with the ground.
Topping cabbage seedlings
The first feeding of cabbage seedlings is usually carried out a week after a dive, using bird droppings diluted 20 times with water.
The second top dressing of cabbage seedlings is carried out seven days before the seedlings are planted in a permanent place, for this they usually use a mixture of superphosphate and soot, for which they take a teaspoon of superphosphate and two teaspoons of wood soot and dissolve in a liter of water, this is enough for ten cabbage plants.
Directly when planting cabbage seedlings not in the holes, but under the digging of the soil before preparing it, you need to make a couple of tablespoons of superphosphate, a teaspoon of urea and 5-7 kg of humus or compost per square meter.
Dressing seedlings of flower crops
The first feeding of seedlings of flower cultures is carried out seven days after diving, for this you can use nitroammophoska (5 g per bucket of water, the norm per square meter of nursery), then the seedlings can be fed with the same composition every 10 days.