White cabbage is one of the most popular vegetable crops in our gardens. White cabbage is grown in almost all countries of the world and is used both fresh and in a variety of processed products. Cabbage usually succeeds well, gives a rich harvest, but in some years its yield may be low. Fluctuations in the yield of white cabbage can depend both on the characteristics of the current growing season and on the inept actions of the gardener in relation to this crop. We will talk about how to care for cabbage correctly, and what to do in what month, today.White cabbage requires regular maintenance and protection from pests.
May cabbage care
Preparing seedlings for planting
White cabbage seedlings before planting in open ground must be prepared by regulating irrigation, top dressing and hardening measures.
Watering seedlings must be completely stopped 6-8 days before planting in the ground, but before planting (three hours before it), seedlings need to be watered as abundantly as possible to moisten the earthen coma completely.
Prior to this, about 15 days before transplanting into the soil, seedlings need to be fed with urea and potassium sulfate, for which 15 g of each of these fertilizers must be dissolved in 10 liters of water, 150 g of solution should be spent on one plant.
Three weeks before planting seedlings in the ground, it is necessary to conduct hardening, for which seedlings must be taken out into the garden or on the open balcony, first for 20 minutes, then for an hour, and so, adding a couple of hours a day, go to the day the seedlings are in the open in the air.
Age of seedlings ready for planting
You can plant seedlings on the site when it forms two pairs of true leaves, reaches a height of ten centimeters, age 42-44 days, and the temperature outside the window rises to 14-16 degrees above zero and will be stable.
Typically, white cabbage seedlings are planted in May. This should be done in the afternoon and preferably not in dry and hot, but in cool and cloudy weather.
Before planting, the site should be dug up to a full bayonet of shovels with the removal of all weeds and with the addition of digging buckets of humus per square meter and a tablespoon of urea, superphosphate and wood ash (for the same area) for digging the soil.
As for optimal soils, loams are suitable for white cabbage, necessarily with a neutral acidity reaction.
If you have few organic fertilizers, you can save them by applying fertilizers directly to the planting holes. To do this, they need to be made 20% more than the volume of the roots and add 200 g of humus and 150 g of wood ash to them.
In this hole, be sure to pre-water it, with a lump of earth you need to install seedlings. The plan for planting seedlings for early varieties of white cabbage should be: between rows 36-42 cm, between plants in a row 26-29 cm. Later varieties should be planted in a row even less often, leaving a distance between plants 45-48 cm.
Within a week after transplanting seedlings, it must be obscured by sunlight.
After planting, the cabbage plant should be watered once every three days if there is no rain, pouring two liters of water under each plant.
The day after watering, and also after rain, the soil around the cabbage must be carefully loosened, avoiding the formation of soil crust. Loosening the soil, in addition to eliminating the risk of soil crust formation, will contribute to the normalization of air and water metabolism.
After watering, it is advisable to mulch the soil, for this humus is ideal. It can be laid in a centimeter layer. Mulching will preserve irrigation water in the soil, inhibit the formation of crust on the soil surface and minimize the rate of development of weeds.
Remember to fight weeds. It is better to do it manually after rain or heavy watering. Weeds are pulled out of moist soil more easily.The grown seedlings of cabbage are protected by a net from a butterfly of a white butterfly.
June cabbage care
The first top dressing in June should be carried out approximately at the end of the first decade of the month. At this time, plants need to be fed with a nitroammophos dissolved in water. For 10 liters of water, you need a tablespoon of nitroammophoski. This amount of solution should be enough for 10 cabbage plants.
It is acceptable to use infusion of mullein diluted ten times with water or infusion of bird droppings diluted with water 12 times. Consumption rate - half a liter for each plant of white cabbage.
Ten days after the first top dressing, a second top dressing is necessary. It is better to use fertilizers such as ammonium nitrate (20 g per square meter), superphosphate (15 g per square meter) and potassium sulfate (18 g per square meter).
In June, slugs and snails appear on the cabbage. To get rid of them, the soil around the cabbage should be sprinkled with wood ash with a layer of 2-3 mm. Also, sheets of iron, cardboard, plastic, slate can be spread out over the site - slugs will be gathered under them, which can then be removed from the site.
Around the middle of the month, plants need to be spudded for a couple of centimeters. This will strengthen the cabbage plants in the soil, will contribute to the formation of an additional root system, therefore, will enhance the nutrition of plants, and will increase the yield.
During the month of watering, you need to carry out once a week if the temperature is up to +25 degrees and twice a week if the temperature is higher. For every square meter of soil occupied under white cabbage, you need to pour a bucket of water.
Care for cabbage in July
In July, it is usually hotter than in June, and white cabbage needs more moisture, so watering should be done in the evening and every five days, spending one and a half buckets of water per square meter.
If the temperature rises above 30 degrees Celsius, the intervals between irrigation should be reduced to three days, reducing the volume of water poured to a bucket per square meter.
When the heads of cabbage begin to tie, the rate of irrigation water needs to be doubled, while maintaining the gap between irrigation.
The day after watering, the soil must be loosened.
To preserve moisture in the soil, the soil must be mulched with a humus layer of 4-6 cm.
Disease and Pest Treatment
To combat pests of cabbage, such as fleas and slugs, cabbage and the soil around it should be sprinkled with wood ash with the addition of tobacco dust. For 200 g of wood ash, 50 g of tobacco dust is needed.
To overcome aphids and caterpillars of cabbage, you need to process cabbage plants with the following composition: 5 kg of tomato tops are needed per bucket of water. The tops must be allowed to infuse for three hours, then boil for three hours, cool, strain, dilute in half with water, and before use add 50 g of laundry soap, which will act as an adhesive.
Caterpillars can also be fought with onion husks. To do this, 200 g of onion husks need to be poured with a liter of boiling water and let it brew for a couple of days. Next, the composition needs to be filtered, diluted twice with water, add 50 g of laundry soap, stir well and they can process the cabbage.To preserve moisture in the soil, the soil must be mulched.
Care for cabbage in August
In August, cabbage helps to gain weight, accumulate useful substances.
Watering must be continued, the soil should be moderately moist. It is better to moisten the soil every other day, pouring five liters of water per square meter. It is necessary to water with settled water at room temperature and carry out watering in the evening.
At the beginning of the month, cabbage needs to be fed with dry fertilizer, previously well-loosened and watering the soil. Per square meter, you should add a tablespoon of urea, half a tablespoon of superphosphate and a third of a tablespoon of potassium sulfate.
After a week, plants can be sprayed with magnesium sulfate, dissolving 2 g of it in a bucket of water, this rate per square meter.
Until the very first leaves, cabbage needs to be bored if this has not been done before.
In August, the fight against caterpillars and slugs with the above compounds should continue. In addition, superphosphate and potassium sulfate dissolved in water can be used to control the tracks. The composition must be made 0.3%.
In the very beginning of August, early varieties of white cabbage are usually harvested.
September cabbage care
It is necessary to continue watering, but you can not abuse it with water - the soil must be kept moist. From the end of the first decade of September, it is advisable to stop watering.Caterpillars can be fought with onion husks.
In September, they usually start harvesting middle and late varieties of white cabbage. It is not worth rushing too much with the collection - the middle varieties can be harvested in mid-September, the late ones - at the very end of September. The main thing is to catch the frost, otherwise the cabbage will not be stored. As soon as the temperature at night drops to +2 degrees, you can start harvesting.
Unlike early varieties, which are used immediately, middle and late varieties are stored. To enhance the keeping quality of the heads, you need to cut the plant with a couple of leaves and be sure to keep the stump.
You need to lay cabbage in a dark and ventilated room with a temperature of about zero. Well stored cabbage in limbo or in wooden crates.
Conclusion We talked about all the activities for the care of white cabbage during the season. By correctly following all the recommendations, you can grow a full-fledged crop of this crop. We remind you that depending on the region, as well as on the conditions of the current season, the terms for the development of heads of cabbage and harvesting may shift in one direction or another.