Even if you live in an area with a short summer, you are also not deprived of the opportunity to enjoy good harvests from your own garden. The main thing is to choose the right plants and varieties. In order to extend the period of maximum productivity in your area, you can include crops with a short growing season in the list of vegetables grown. Thanks to this, you gain the opportunity to get a full crop at the beginning of summer, and closer to the end of the season, re-sow and enjoy fresh vegetables in the fall.9 vegetables for a quick crop
Features of choosing vegetables for a quick harvest
Most vegetables that are used for early harvest are able to continue intensive growth and development in cool weather. They also apply to plants that respond positively to short daylight hours. Recall that the number of hours during which plants receive maximum sunlight has a significant effect on the vegetation phase of various crops.
In this regard, for the fast harvest in the spring and autumn periods, the so-called “long day” crops are primarily suitable. With a total illumination of more than 13 hours a day, such plants receive a signal for the formation of flowers, fruits and seeds. And since in many cases edible roots and vegetative mass are of nutritional value, the development of these organs during the short daylight hours is most intense, and useless flowering does not occur.
First of all, the most suitable crops for a quick harvest in early summer and autumn include many root crops, leafy greens, and some other vegetables.
To find out if a given species or variety is suitable for growing in the fall, look for the average number of days before harvesting on a bag of seeds and add a week or two to take into account the lower light intensity in the fall. Thus, it will be easy to understand whether the plant has a chance to bring the crop to the first frost when sowing closer to the end of summer.
It is equally important to know the main features of specific plants, so as not to be late or rush with the time of sowing. For example, lettuce seeds may not germinate when the temperature exceeds 27 degrees.
As for the choice of plants for a quick harvest in spring, here, in addition to the influence of long daylight hours, the decisive factor will be resistance to cold and the ability of seeds to germinate at low temperatures.
Of course, this is not about a full-fledged crop of carrots for winter storage. Nevertheless, you must agree - it is always nice to gnaw even a small carrot tail, directly from the garden. Small carrots have a delicate, sweet taste, it can be used in soups, salads and in baby food.Small carrots have a delicate, sweet taste.
An additional plus of carrots is the fact that it can withstand small return frosts (up to -2 degrees) or the first light autumn frosts (up to - 5 degrees).
Germination of carrot seeds begins at a temperature of +5 degrees, but mass shoots appear at a temperature of +15 to +20. Despite the increased cold resistance, when sowing at the end of summer, it is important to harvest before the earth freezes to prevent rotting of tender young root crops.
To select carrots for an early harvest, select early ripe varieties that can be eaten after 50-60 days in the stage of milk ripeness, for example, Boltex, Nantes-4, Artek, "Alenka", "Early TSHA". Harvest of these varieties can be harvested without waiting for full ripeness, and used when the "shoulders" reach a value of 2-3 centimeters.
When choosing a variety, it is also worth paying attention to the so-called bundled carrots, which are specially created for collection at a young age. The most productive varieties:"Little finger", Beam, "Thumbelina", Baby.
Read more about the agricultural technology of carrots in the article How to grow large and sweet carrots?
2. Cabbage Pak Choy, or Asian cabbage
An unusual leafy vegetable with edible leaves and petioles with a characteristic pleasant taste and a piquant aftertaste. Leaf blades can have a green or purple color, they are located in the form of a small vase, which makes the vegetable very attractive in appearance.Pak Choy - a variety of cabbage is less picky about growing conditions.
This type of cabbage is less picky about the growing conditions compared to its white sister. Thanks to the rapid growth, Pak Choi is ready to harvest the first crop in just 30 days.
Young leaves of Asian cabbage are good for frying, as an ingredient in soups or fresh salads. To extend the productivity period, it is important to carry out accurate harvesting. To do this, carefully cut the outer leaves, allowing the core to continue to grow further.
Pak Choi cabbage will easily endure short-term frosts of up to -4 degrees and wet rainy weather. In spring, the seeds of this cabbage can be sown as soon as the soil warms up to + 3 ... + 4 degrees, while to extend the harvest time you can sow 2-3 waves of Asian cabbage with an interval of 7-10 days.
Sowing for the autumn harvest is carried out as soon as the summer heat subsides, otherwise the seedlings can go in the arrow. Varieties to which you should pay attention: "Vesnyanka", "White Swan", Araks, "Chill".
To achieve readiness to get to the dinner table, leafy varieties of salad will need only 30 days. The seeds of this cold-resistant greenery can begin to hatch at a temperature of + 5 ... +6 degrees, and young seedlings can withstand a drop in air temperature to -2 degrees.Salad "Limpopo".
Salad is also characterized by the use of a conveyor landing in several approaches at weekly intervals to constantly have fresh outlets in the garden. For optimal growth and development, the best temperature should be maintained at 20 degrees. At the same time, cool weather enhances the color intensity of varieties with red and brownish leaves.
Sowing lettuce can be done when night temperatures become stably positive and will not drop below zero (approximately from mid-April). In this case, the threat of short-term frosts should be from -1 to -2 degrees. In the summer, it is better to sow the salad closer to the end of August, because at a temperature above 27 degrees shoots do not appear so willingly.
There is also the possibility of growing lettuce as a winter crop. To do this, sowing is carried out on pre-prepared beds in November on frozen ground, so as not to get premature seedlings in the fall.
What other crops can be sown in the winter, read in the article What to plant in the winter? 20+ crops for winter crops.
There are so many colors and shapes of leaf blades for leaf lettuce that it can have very wide culinary uses, giving an original look to salads and sandwiches. When harvesting, you can cut the rosette completely or separate only the outer leaves, giving plants the opportunity to continue growing and produce more foliage.
The most delicious varieties of leaf lettuce with green leaves: Lolo Bionda, Limpopo (half-baked) "Grandee", "Dubolistny", "Odessa Kucheryavets". Varieties of lettuce with dark leaves, although they look elegant and original, have a more bitter taste.
About the varieties of lettuce and their cultivation, read the article 7 types of lettuce for your garden.
Mizuna, or "Japanese cabbage" - is another exotic variety of cabbage that is just beginning to gain popularity among gardeners. This culture does not head out, but grows a bush of 40-50 centimeters in height. Mizuna leaves are very decorative - they are unusual for a cabbage of feathery shape.Mizuna, or "Japanese cabbage" is another exotic variety of cabbage.
Depending on the variety, their color may be green or purple. In gastronomic terms, the mizuna foliage is characterized by a slightly bitter taste and a characteristic mustard aroma. Young leaves of Japanese cabbage are ready for collection about 20 days after emergence, when they have a length of about 5 centimeters.
The whole mizuna is cut off after about 50 days, in which case the tops are cut at ground level. If you leave the bushes until the end of the season, then at the base of the stem a small cone-shaped thickening forms, which can also be eaten (to taste the mizuna stem resembles rutabaga).
Japanese cabbage is cold-resistant, and seedlings can be expected at a temperature of + 3 ... +4 degrees. Young plants can withstand short-term freezing up to -5 degrees. To obtain a continuous conveyor of vitamin greens, sowing is recommended to be carried out in several periods with an interval of 12-15 days.
The textured lobed leaves of this culture look good when decorating fresh dishes in combination with salad greens, and at the same time the leaf blades are elastic enough to withstand cooking when steaming and frying. Recommended grades: "Salad Mizuna" with green leaves and Mizuna red - with purple foliage.
Green peas are one of the most beloved vegetable crops among children; it is no less popular among adults. Moreover, it is an excellent green manure that enriches the soil with nitrogen and can serve as a precursor for many other vegetable crops in the beds.Peas for autumn harvest are sown in July-August.
Peas are adversely affected by high temperatures, so it is best to plant it in spring or late summer. Sowing can begin already in late April. Peas begin to germinate at a temperature of +6 degrees, but the temperature is still considered optimal +10 degrees.
If the soil has already warmed up enough, it is advisable to resort to soaking the seeds to obtain quick and friendly seedlings. To do this, peas must be soaked in water at room temperature for about 12 hours. It is recommended to regularly change the water once every 3 hours, after which it is better to dry the peas for the convenience of sowing.
Peas for autumn harvest are sown in July-August. The ripening period of early varieties is 1.5 months, and young pods on the shoulder blade are harvested even earlier. For a quick harvest, pay attention to the most early peas: 6 weeks, "Sprinter", Slider, "Children's sweetness", "Miracle of Altai".
Read about the features of growing peas in the article Peas all summer.
Radish can be without exaggeration called the most popular early root crop. A vegetable is ready to harvest about 30 days after sowing or when the head reaches a diameter of about 2.5 cm. By the way, radish tops are also edible and used in salads and other dishes.Radish can be without exaggeration called the most popular early root crop.
Radish will develop well only in a short day, until about the beginning of June, so it can be sown from March (in the greenhouse) to the end of April. Radish seeds can germinate even at a low subzero temperature (-1 ... -2 degrees). However, the temperature + 15 ... +20 degrees is most favorable for friendly germination. In this case, the seeds will germinate after 3 days.
If the temperature is lower, then seedlings will appear in 6-12 days. When choosing a radish variety for an early harvest, it is worth considering that the ripening dates indicated on the package are valid only for a constant temperature regime of + 15 ... + 30 degrees. But when growing a vegetable in open ground, a constant temperature fluctuation is inevitable, therefore, the time of ripening of the root crop will be stretched.
Early radish varieties worthy of attention: "Alex", "Supernova", "Pioneer in the Garden", Rosan, "Heat".
Read about the features of radish cultivation in the article Why Radish Fail?
Many gardeners continue to harvest green onions in the old fashioned way by sticking an adult onion in the ground. But really delicate thin feathers of onions can be obtained by growing young plants from seeds, in this case, not only greens, but also a young onion is used.Truly delicate thin feathers of onions can be obtained by growing young plants from seeds.
For this, special varieties of so-called salad onions are usually used. Harvest young onions with a head no thicker than a pencil ready for harvesting within 30 days after sowing.
Sowing onions can be quite dense, as with a gradual harvest, it will be possible to pull small heads out of the soil, allowing the rest of the bulbs to continue to grow and develop. With age, the aroma of onions will only increase, and the taste will become sharper. Many varieties winter well in the open ground and begin to grow next spring as a traditional onion "on the head."
Despite the fact that onions are a rather cold-resistant crop, sowing seeds in open ground is better when the average daily temperature is +12 degrees. Varieties of onions on a feather worthy of attention: "Red salad", "Russian hero", Red Feather, "Snowdrop", "Pompeii".
About growing onions from seeds, see the article How to Grow Onion Turnips from Seeds.
8. Swiss chard
Chard, or beetroot, is an excellent vegetable for making soups, cabbage rolls and vegetable stews. Tender young leaves are ready for harvesting already 45 days after seed germination. Harvesting is significantly extended over time, since it is carried out gradually, starting from the extreme young leaves about 10 centimeters in size, and the foliage in the center of the outlet will continue to grow.Chard, or beetroot, is an excellent vegetable for making soups, cabbage rolls and vegetable stews.
In general, chard is more thermophilic than root beet, but its seeds can germinate at a temperature of +5 degrees for two weeks. At higher temperatures, seedlings appear much faster - after about a week. Short-term frosts to -3 degrees the chard seedlings will transfer quite calmly, but a longer temperature drop can cause a temporary halt in growth.
Unlike many early vegetables, chard does not suffer from heat and rarely disappears in color with the onset of long daylight hours, therefore, plants planted in spring can be freely consumed until autumn. Individual bushes of leaf beets are able to successfully overwinter, and in the spring begin to grow again as soon as the soil warms up.
Read more about growing chard in article 5 of exotic vegetables, which I advise everyone to grow.
The most popular varieties of chard with green foliage or multi-colored veins: "Scarlet", "Rainbow", "Emerald".
Turnip is a famous relative of cabbage, once very popular in Russia. Today it is grown, rather, as an original curiosity - in order to diversify the vegetable menu. By the way, turnips, like radishes, use not only the root, but also the aerial part. Greens are ready for culinary use in just 30 days, and root crops are harvested in about 60 days.Today, turnips are grown, rather, as the original wonders.
Due to the increased cold resistance, turnip seeds are able to germinate at a temperature of 1-3 degrees. However, friendly and quick shoots will appear only at a temperature of 8-10 degrees.At the same time, seedlings are able to withstand significant frosts to -6 degrees, and adult plants remain alive even at -8 degrees.
But keep in mind that early ripening varieties are less resistant to frost, unlike late-ripening ones. At the same time, lowering the temperature makes the turnip taste more sweet.
In central Russia, turnip sowing time falls in late April and early May. To obtain an autumn crop, sowing root crops in July is practiced. Harvest is usually ready for harvesting in 50-70 days. Turnip is also used at the stage of milk ripeness, when the roots are about 5 centimeters in diameter.
Read more about agricultural technology of turnips in the article Turnip - features of cultivation and varieties.
Early turnip varieties: Golden Ball, "Snow Maiden", May White, "Sprinter" other.