To date, the efforts of breeders have bred, according to various sources, from seven to ten thousand (!) Cultivar apple varieties. But with their huge variety in private gardens, as a rule, only a couple of popular and favorite varieties grow. Apple trees are large trees with a spreading crown, and many of these can not be grown on one site. But what if you try to grow columnar varieties of this culture? In this article I will tell you about such varieties of apple trees.10 varieties of columnar apple trees that I recommend for the middle lane.
When are columnar apple trees the best solution?
All garden apple varieties are divided into 3 large groups: early (summer), middle (autumn) and late (winter).
For a home-made apple to be present on the table all year round, at least 8-10 varieties of apple trees of different tastes and ripening dates must be grown on the garden plot. But with their spreading crowns on a small plot it is really possible to grow only 1-3 trees, which will occupy more than half of the land allocated for the garden.
Yes, and a harvest of ten adult apple trees, if you do not sell them, one family, no matter how big it is, can neither eat nor process it. In the harvest years, a large half of the apples will either have to be distributed (well, if there is anyone), or - in compost.
Therefore, at present, apple trees of a new type are becoming increasingly popular. These are columnar cultures. Each of them occupies up to one meter of area, forms crops, of course, less than its large relatives (nothing has to be thrown away), but their small sizes make it possible to grow many different varieties.
Read about the advantages and disadvantages of a column-shaped garden in our article Colon-shaped garden, or How to grow 20 fruit trees on one hundredth?
The columnar type of apple trees does not form lateral branches; it grows almost in one trunk, on which it forms fruits. Such apple trees are characterized by early maturity - the very next year after planting, you can get the first crop. The maximum yield, with proper care and selection of varieties - up to 20 kg from a miniature tree.
Like ordinary varieties, the colonized ones are divided into early, middle, late, but have one feature - they are not frost-resistant enough. True, the selection does not stand still and there are already columnar apple trees that calmly tolerate winter temperatures up to -40 ° С.
Early (summer) varieties of columnar apple trees for the middle lane
Technical ripeness of fruits occurs in the period from the third decade of July to mid-August. Storage - 2-4 weeks. Use these varieties in fresh or canned form (stewed fruit, juices, jam, etc.).
1. Apple tree "Vasyugan"
A semi-dwarf, reaches 2.5-3 m in height. It is considered the best summer variety. The fruits ripen in late August. 1-2 months are stored. The mass of the fruit is 130-200 g with a pronounced sweet aftertaste, leaving a faint sour aftertaste. The type of fruit for tasting qualities is dessert. It has a distinct aroma. The shape of the fetus is elongated-conical.
The peel of the apple is dense, at first yellow-green, turns into a bright pink-red color. The pulp is white-creamy, granular, dense.
The variety is characterized by high frost resistance - up to -40 ° С, which allows cultivating the variety not only in central Russia, but also in more severe conditions of the Urals and the Far East. Productivity reaches 5-7 kg per tree, active fruiting lasts up to 15 years, and then quickly decreases.Column-shaped apple tree "Vasyugan".
2. Apple tree "Medok"
The cute dwarf, whose height reaches 2.2 m, the habit of the crown does not exceed 25 cm. It is very popular among gardeners because of the high resistance of the root system to frost (up to -42 ° C).
Remember! To successfully preserve the aerial parts of the tree, its top needs shelter.
Depending on climatic conditions, it can be a late-summer or an early-autumn variety in terms of ripening. Ripening occurs in August, and north of Moscow Region in September.
A quick-growing variety capable of forming several fruits in the first year (it is better to cut off the flowers so as not to weaken the tree by the early formation of the crop). Despite its dwarfism, it forms high yields. The maximum yield of 8-10 kg is achieved by the tree in the 5th year of life, active fruiting lasts 15-16 years.
Fruits are rounded in shape with bright yellow (honey) or white-yellow color. Fruits weighing from 150 to 250 g. The skin is dense, color is yellow, elegant. The taste is sweet, honey with a unique aroma. The pulp is juicy, white, with a granular structure. By taste, the fruits are suitable for baby and diet food.
Shelf life of apples does not exceed one month. The variety is immune to scab and other diseases. Use fresh and winter preparations.Column-shaped apple tree "Medok".
3. Apple tree "President"
Semi-dwarf, zoned for the Moscow region and the middle zone, summer variety (2-2.5 m high, crown habit 15-25 cm). Winter hardiness is high (tolerates frosts down to -40 ° C). The variety is resistant to disease. Early Fruits are placed throughout the trunk, starting at 30 cm distance from the soil. Fruiting is regular, in some years below average.
Fruits are flattened-rounded, greenish or pale yellow in color with a delicate pinkish blush, sometimes a violet-red hue. The skin is dense, thin with a shiny sheen. The mass of the fruit is 140-250 g. The pulp is juicy, sweet and sour, white, sometimes cream-colored. Dessert taste (tasting score 4.8-5.0 points).
Ripening - from mid-August to mid-September. The minimum shelf life is 1.5 months. Maximum yields begin at 4-5 years of age. Productivity ranges from 8-10, and with good care 12-16 kg from a tree. The duration of active fruiting is 15 years. It is used fresh, for canning, production of dried fruits.Column-shaped apple tree "President".
Middle (autumn) varieties of columnar apple trees for the middle lane
To provide the family with fruits of mid-ripening varieties, it is enough to have 2-3 varieties on the site. The first fruits are best removed in the 2nd year. The varieties of this group for the most part are quite resistant to disease, tolerate winter cold well. Fruiting lasts almost all autumn, the maximum yield starts from 5 years of age. The fruits are stored for 3 months or more, providing the family with fresh fruit in the winter.
4. Apple tree "Gin"
The variety is dwarf, the crown is compact (up to 30 cm), the tree does not exceed 2 meters in height, which is very convenient for caring for the crop and harvesting. Skoroplodny, already in the second year forms the first fruits. The variety is resistant to scab and other fungal diseases, tolerates autumn-spring cooling and winter frosts down to -40 ° С.
Fruits are round in shape, weighing 120-150 g. Coloring of fruits of bright raspberry shades. The pulp is light, sweet and sour, juicy to a crunch, very fragrant, especially with biological ripeness, which the fruits reach during storage. The variety is classified as dessert in taste, the tasting score is 4.7.
The fruits ripen by the end of August and beginning of September. In the first 3-4 years, productivity ranges from 4-5 kg, and in subsequent years it can reach up to 15 kg per tree. A wonderful property of the variety is that the fruits do not fall, so you can take the crop gradually. Use them fresh and for canning.
The variety belongs to short-lived. The term of active fruiting does not exceed 12 years.Column-shaped apple tree "Jin".
5. Apple tree "Triumph"
The semi-dwarf is columnar (height up to 2 m), autumn ripening. The crown is compact, small in size. Early Starting from the second year of planting, by the age of 5 forms 5-6 kg of very tasty fruits, weighing from 130 to 200 g.
In shape, the fruits are flat spherical. The skin is dense, glossy, bright dark red in color with a striped blush.
Fruits of a sweet and sweet taste with a delicate sourness and a honey aftertaste. A distinctive, distinctive apple flavor. The pulp is granular, dense, crisp, white.
It is resistant to scab, other diseases and pests. Of the shortcomings - average frost resistance, the variety requires shelter for the winter.
Harvesting in technical maturity begins in mid-September. The fruit storage period does not exceed 1-1.5 months. The use of fruits is universal: fresh and other types of processing (compotes, jams, juices).Column-shaped apple tree "Triumph".
6. Apple tree "Ostankino"
The variety belongs to early semi-dwarfs, the height of the tree does not exceed 2.5 m. The crown is compact, small-sized. Winter hardiness is medium to high.
Harvest begins to form from the second year of life. The variety is high-yielding, reaches high productivity in the 5th year, when it forms up to 16 kg of fruits from a tree. Active fruiting lasts 14-15 years, decreasing gradually. The variety needs pollinators, which can be varieties "President" and others (with simultaneous flowering).
Fruits form throughout the stem, starting at 40 cm from soil level. The main number of fruits has an average weight of 100-150 g, but individual specimens reach 250-300 g. Harvesting, depending on the growing area, begins in the first or third decade of September.
The fruits are rounded in shape, slightly flattened. The skin is dense, smooth. The skin color of the skin is bright, red, with an elegant red-violet blush for almost the entire apple. The pulp is white, juicy, the taste is sweet and sour.
Under optimal storage conditions, it has a long shelf life - almost until December-January. The variety is universal: it is used fresh and for winter preservation in the form of jams, juices, compotes, etc.Column-shaped apple tree "Ostankino".
7. Apple tree "Senator"
Refers to varieties of medium ripening. It is resistant to weather disasters: drought-resistant and winter-hardy variety. It resists diseases (powdery mildew, anthracnose, septoria), and of the pests it is a sawfly.
Fruits of medium size, weighing 130-300 g, a very unusual color. The integumentary skin is thin, dark red with pronounced banding, almost black for biological ripeness. The fruits are juicy, with an apple flavor, the taste is sweet. The flesh is slightly creamy, soft.
Harvesting is carried out in September. Productivity is up to 16 kg from a tree. Duration of storage - until January. Suitable for fresh consumption and for canning.Column-shaped apple tree "Senator".
Late (winter) varieties of colonized apple trees for the middle lane
In the garden, late varieties of apple trees are definitely needed. They are distinguished by high keeping quality while maintaining the quality of fruits until March. The selection of late varieties is quite large. The following is a description of those that, in my opinion, are most suitable for growing in the middle lane.
8. Apple tree "Currency"
Winter variety, ideal for growing in central Russia. The height of the trees is not more than 2.5 m, the crown habit is about 20 cm. A true decoration of the garden plot. Leaves are bright green until late autumn. The narrow trunk is literally intertwined with fairly large rounded apples weighing 100-250 g.
The peel of apples is thin, shiny (with gloss), the fruits are yellow, elegant with a red blush on the "cheeks". The taste is sweet with a slight slightly sour finish. The pulp is fragrant, juicy, white. Harvesting in technical maturity begins in late September to the first half of October. Apples do not crumble, so their harvest can be stretched.
The variety is early-growing and already in the 2nd year forms the first fruits, a fairly high yield is obtained in the 4th-5th year - 4-5 kg. The yield of trees increases to 10 kg per tree with proper care (watering, top dressing).
It has excellent qualities: winter hardiness, resistance to scab and other diseases and pests, high keeping quality and transportability. Use fresh and for canning.Colon-shaped apple tree "Currency".
9. Apple-tree "Moscow necklace"
The grade is winter, cold-resistant, half-dwarf. The height of an adult tree is 2-3 m, the crown is very narrow, almost 1 trunk. Needs pollinators, which can be other varieties. Resistant to scab. Needs preventive protective measures to other diseases (moniliosis, spotting) and pests (codling moth, aphid, tick).
A quick-growing variety, in the first year you can test the fruits. Fruiting is annual. Fruits are located on the central stem. The peak yield occurs on the 4th-5th year. The maximum yield is an average of 10 kg per tree. But after 10 years of active fruiting, productivity decreases sharply and by the age of 15 it almost completely stops.
The fruits are round, weighing 170-200 g. The peel is thin, fairly dense, at first green, gradually turns red and by autumn the apples acquire a dark red elegant color. The flesh is light cream, fine-grained, very juicy with a pleasant aroma. The taste is dessert, obviously sweet with a slightly noticeable acidity. Harvested in late September and early October. Use fresh and for canning.Column-shaped apple tree "Moscow necklace".
10. Apple tree "Amber necklace"
Winter variety. Half-dwarf, the height of the trees is 2-2.5 m, the shape, like the previous variety, is very small, which allows these varieties to be planted in a row after 40 cm. A distinctive feature of the variety is its high yield - up to 20 kg per tree. Needs a pollinator, which may be the variety "Moscow Necklace", "Currency" and others (with simultaneous flowering).
It perfectly tolerates the climatic conditions of the Moscow region and even Siberia. The fruits are harvested at the end of September, they are stored for up to 5 months without loss of quality (until February-March).
Unlike the Moscow Necklace, the fruits of the Amber Necklace are intensely yellow (resemble amber) with a small, very bright blush. The apple mass reaches 150-300 g. The taste of the pulp is sweet, with a slight sourness of aftertaste (almost imperceptible). The pulp is very white, juicy, crisp.