Having planted young seedlings of apple trees, many gardeners tirelessly take care of them, and after waiting for stable crops, they weaken their attention. They forgot to do something, did not manage to do something, and now the first problems are already appearing. One of these is fruits rotting on a tree. It is already impossible not to notice this, and natural questions arise - what is it and how to deal with it? Why apples rot on branches and how to prevent this trouble, we will tell in the article.Why do apples rot on branches?
Moniliosis - what kind of disease and where does it come from?
The main reason for the appearance of rotting apples on a tree is moniliosis. This is a fungal disease, various types of which affect fruit, stone fruits and even ornamental plants. Spreading quickly in the garden, spores affect the fruits, and shoots, and leaves of various crops.
As for the apple trees, most often the disease occurs in adult trees with a thickened crown. Mushroom spores fall on the fruit with gusts of wind or are carried by birds and pests. Usually this happens in the middle of summer - it is at this time that you can find the first rotting fruits. This form of moniliosis is called fruit rot.
Warm and humid weather contributes to the rapid spread of the disease, and if measures are not taken in time to counter, a significant part of the crop will be lost.
It is noticed that most often fruit rot affects summer varieties of apples with a thin skin. In addition, fruits with damaged peels are in the area of particular risk - these can be various, even microscopic cracks or punctures from pests, as well as traumatic injuries from hail or branches in strong winds.
Moniliosis is characterized by the presence of an incubation period that lasts 5 days. Only after this period of time will the first signs of the disease appear on the apple tree, which are easy to detect. On the apple, you can see a brown spot that grows rapidly and covers the entire fruit. After another 5 days, the disease will enter the sporulation phase, and each damaged apple will be a danger to everyone else, including the tree.
Upon careful examination, on the surface of the spot, you can notice small gray tubercles - these are spores of the fungus. By wind and birds, these spores are transferred to neighboring fruits, and within a few weeks healthy apples can be counted on the fingers.
Disputes of moniliosis can easily withstand frosty winters and if the fruits affected by the fungus lie under an apple tree until spring, you can get acquainted with another form of this disease monilial burn. In the spring, on diseased apple trees, one can see shrunken shoots, flowers, ovaries and burnt leaves.Small tubercles of gray color are spores of the fungus.
How to protect the crop from fruit rot?
The appearance of moniliosis on apple trees does not promise the gardener a carefree summer. It will not work to defeat this disease with a pair of sprayings, since such an effective drug has not yet been invented. Therefore, it is better to immediately tune in to a serious long-term struggle, and to begin with, try to save this year's crop.
First of all, carefully inspect the whole tree and carefully collect the affected and suspicious fruits. Such examinations and removal of damaged fruits must be carried out not from case to case, but regularly and as often as possible.
Just in case, we’ll clarify that you can’t add such apples to compost - just burn them. If at least 20 days remain before harvesting, it is advisable to spray the apple tree with the Abiga-Peak fungicide solution. Also, for the treatment of fruit rot, a solution of Bordeaux liquid or preparations of a similar composition and action are used - Oksikhom, Polykhom and others.
In the event that the disease is detected immediately before the harvest, the Pentafag-S biological product can be treated with an apple. The action of the drug is based on the destruction of phytopathogenic cells by bacterial viruses. Pentafaga-S biologically active substances inhibit the development of pathogenic fungi, cause the growth of antagonist microorganisms and increase the resistance of plants to fungal and bacterial diseases.
It is no secret that diseases and pests primarily affect diseased and weakened trees. Powdery mildew and scab at first glance seem trifling diseases, but damaged fruits can subsequently suffer from fruit rot.
So with insect pests - the slogan "in a good garden of food should be enough for everyone" does not work here. Wasps, leafworms and moths, of course, will not eat all the apples, but they will "bite", and this is enough to make moniliosis feel at home. Therefore, among preventive measures, the main place is taken by the proper care of the orchard.
Its main components:
- regular garden inspections;
- timely top dressing and watering;
- pest and disease control;
- the use of drugs to enhance immunity;
- preventive treatment with fungicides and insecticides;
- competent forming pruning that does not allow thickening of the crown;
- spring and autumn sanitary scraps;
- keeping trunks clean.
Supporters of natural agriculture use special biocomplexes to increase plant immunity. They help plants cope with pest attacks and various diseases on their own, and withstand climate surprises in the form of heat, cold, drought and prolonged rain. In addition, when using biocomplexes in plants, stress from the use of various pesticides and chemicals is reduced.
Particular attention should be paid to preventive measures for owners of old fruiting stands and those who have abandoned orchards in the neighborhood.If moniliosis has been observed on the apple tree, spraying with bio-fungicides can be carried out at least twenty days before harvest
Fight with moniliosis begin in early spring. During the growing season, the tree is sprayed with fungicides several times. The multiplicity of treatments and consumption rates depend on the selected drug. Manufacturers write in detail about this in the instructions.
For example, with the Abiga-Peak solution, apples are sprayed 4 times per season, starting from the phase "until the buds open." This drug is effective even at low air temperatures and, importantly, forms immunity in plants against fungal diseases.
To treat apple trees with the beloved Bordeaux mixture, a 3% solution is prepared in the phase "before budding," then, according to the "green cone" and further, 1% solution is already used. During the season, this drug is allowed to be used 6 times.
When spraying trees, it is important to handle the trunks, branches, and trunk circles well. The last treatment must be carried out in the fall. Previously, the apple tree must be cleaned of the remaining fruits, leaves, dry and damaged branches, remove all garbage from the trunk circle - everything is in the fire.
Also read our material 4 obligatory spring garden treatments for diseases and pests.
Dear readers! Moniliosis is an unpleasant but not fatal disease of fruit trees. As with other fungal diseases, preventive measures can significantly reduce the risk of a fungus. If, in spite of everything, the trouble happened, and the apple trees were infected, perseverance and perseverance will help to defeat this disease.