Depending on the variety group, the age of seedlings ready for planting in open ground is: for early tomatoes - 45-50 days, average ripening - 55-60, and late dates - at least 70 days. When planting seedlings at a younger age, the period of its adaptation to new conditions is significantly extended, the bushes are poorly developed and poorly resist the defeat of diseases and pests. But success in obtaining a high-quality tomato crop also depends on careful implementation of the basic rules for planting seedlings in open ground.5 simple rules for planting tomato seedlings in open ground
1. Preparing seedlings for planting
At least 5-6 days before planting (if seedlings grew in the apartment) it is necessary to harden it (especially early tomatoes).
Before planting tomato seedlings, it is useful to treat with any drug that will reduce the stress effect of changing environmental conditions and help plants take root (Zircon, Epin, HB-101 and others).
Processing with these agents is important to carry out in full accordance with the instructions for the drug.
About hardening seedlings before planting in open ground, read our material Hardening seedlings.
2. When to plant tomato seedlings
Regardless of the region, planting tomato seedlings in open ground is carried out when the soil in the 8-10 cm layer warms up to + 10 ... + 12 ° C (measurements of soil temperature are done for several days) and the reality of return frosts is minimized.
In temperate regions, it is better to plant tomato seedlings in the so-called warm beds, or warm the soil in advance with hot water. For this, 1-1.5 hours before transplanting seedlings, 1-2 liters of hot water are poured into each well and the bed is temporarily closed with any coating material. Only then seedlings are planted.
The following data, based on many years of experience of gardeners from different regions of Russia, will help you to roughly navigate the dates of planting tomato seedlings in open ground.
In the southern regions:
- early tomatoes are usually planted from 25.04 to 10.05;
- Tomatoes of medium and late ripening - from 10.05 to 15.05.
In the Central Black Earth regions:
- early tomatoes - from May 25 to June 10;
- seedlings of tomatoes of medium and late ripening - from 20.05 to 25.05 and from 1.06 to 10.06 (respectively).
Middle lane of Russia:
- early tomatoes - from 1.06 to 10.06;
- seedlings of medium and late ripening - from 5.06 to 15.06.
Ural and Siberian regions:
- seedlings of early tomatoes - from 5.06 to 10.06;
- middle and late grades - from 5.06 to 15.06.
Regions of the Far East:
- early tomatoes - 1.05 to 25.05 (under cover);
- seedlings of middle and late varieties - from 10.06 to 25.06.
If seedlings of tomatoes with an open root system, planting is carried out vertically, without root bends.
Important! In order for the seedlings to take root better and not get sunburns, it is planted from 10 a.m. to 12 p.m. and from 3 p.m. to 5 p.m. or in cloudy (but not cool) weather.
3. How to plant tomato seedlings
Tomato seedlings must be planted in compliance with the following requirements:
If tomato seedlings are grown in individual peat-humus or other pots, only a pot or earthen ball is deepened into the soil hole and covered with earth. The stem is not covered by soil. The engraftment is indicated by the appearance of new leaves. After 2 weeks, the first hilling is carried out to the height of the stem.
If open seed root tomato seedlings, landing is carried out vertically, without root bends, in a well prepared and plentifully watered hole. The plant installed in the center of the well is gently squeezed and mulched.
One hole two plants can be plantedplacing them along a row (it’s more convenient to care for the plants).
If overgrown tomato seedlings, it is more convenient to plant it obliquely along the row, so that during subsequent treatments not to damage the root system.
After planting in the first 2-3 days, the seedlings can "lie". It `s naturally. No need to do anything.
The first post-planting irrigation is carried out no earlier than 10-12 days (tomatoes cannot tolerate high humidity). But in the case of very hot and dry weather, the first watering can and should be done earlier.
4. What tomato planting scheme to choose
In order to grow a good tomato crop, it is important to choose the right seedling plan.
In the summer cottage, where beds are used for culture in cultivation or a separate wedge, the following seedling planting schemes can be used.
For example, I plant seedlings of early tomatoes in double rows or simply in an ordinary way. In the ordinary scheme, so that the bushes do not obscure each other (conditions are created for the development of fungal diseases) and do not thicken the planting (it is more difficult to care for individual bushes in a row), the distance between the bushes is 45-50 cm, and between rows 60-70 cm.
In the double rows scheme, between the ribbons the distance is not less than 70 cm (for tall ones - up to 1 m), and in the ribbon between rows - 50-60 cm, in the row between bushes - 45-60 cm, depending on the variety group.
Immediately after landing, I place arcs on which I fix the coating materials used for temperature and weather deviations from the norm. I sprinkle aisles with sawdust, which helps to preserve the fruit from pollution.
Tomatoes of medium ripening and hybrids
In connection with the formation of higher bushes, I place seedlings in a row through 50-65 cm. I leave at least 60-70 cm between rows. Near the bushes I set pegs to the height of the future plant for garter (about 80-90 cm).When planting seedlings of tall varieties of tomatoes, it is important to immediately establish a support for them.
Late-ripe and indeterminate varieties
Tomato seedlings of this group are planted in an ordinary way. I leave at least 70-80 cm in the row between the bushes and 1-1.5 m between the rows. Tomatoes grow up to 2 or more meters, so immediately after planting I pull 2-3 rows of wire or thick twine on the stakes (to form a trellis ) I form bushes in 2 stems and constantly monitor the timely garter.
In cooler regions, this scheme makes it possible to cover the aisles with straw with the approach of low temperatures at the end of summer, to carefully remove the plants from the trellises and to spread them along the row. Install arcs with cover material. In this case, low-lying tomato varieties (Northern Wonder, Northern Beauty, Borodino F1, etc.) will continue to form and ripen fruits on their native bush, which means that you will receive a crop for using fresh fruits much longer.
5. How to protect young tomato plantings from return frosts
If cooling is expected at night and in the morning, and tomato seedlings are already planted, then temporary shelters are used until stable positive temperatures (spanbond, lutrasil, etc.) are used.
If the planted tomato seedlings are frozen, the stems and leaves are cut to a healthy tissue, and the remaining ones are sprayed with warm solutions of low concentration of boron, Epina, iodine, Zircon. This technique (if the roots have not been affected) stimulates growth processes well, and with the loss of an early harvest, the total will be quite high.
Spraying with Epine and Zircon antistress solutions can be repeated several times in 8-10 days. After 3-4 days, you need to fertilize with urea, "Kemira") and after 5-7 days, repeat the fertilizing with full fertilizer (nitrofos or any other), but very carefully and in low doses.
If the freezing of the aerial mass is insignificant (the leaves do not turn black, but seem to fade), a positive effect is exerted on the leaves through a small diffuser with slightly warm water (literally at room temperature). This technique contributes to the gradual thawing of a slightly frozen bush.
Tomatoes die when the temperature drops in the range from + 3 ... + 1 ° C to -1 ° C. To protect plants from prolonged cold snap they are heated with smoky bonfires, they cover the bushes with straw, dry sawdust. For small plantings, the bushes are covered with cardboard boxes, plastic containers or cover material.