Piglet meat is a very profitable venture. Piglets, for example, grow 3 times more efficient than calves. If to get 1 kg of beef you need more than 10 kg of feed, then per kg of pork - from 3.6 kg of feed. Even taking into account the relative high cost of concentrated feed compared to coarse ones, pigs pay for feed better. Pigs can be fed using several technologies. They are simple, differ mainly in a set of feeds. I will tell you how and what to feed the pigs in my article.How and how to feed pigs?
How to feed piglets on growing?
A healthy and strong piglet will grow well. Signs of health: a broad back, a long body, the butt is not drooping, and the legs are strong. The piglet actively runs, breathes well, eats with appetite (not sucking and not enough).
In detail, how to choose a good pig and take care of pigs, we wrote in the article Basic rules for keeping pigs in the household.
Piglets after weaning are called weaners, and the growth period before feeding is called rearing. Piglets in this period get used to dry and wet food. The digestive system is developing rapidly, and here it is very important to properly prepare the piglets for further successful feeding.
In order to avoid growth delays, it is necessary to observe the feeding regimen and the diet's compliance with the needs of a growing organism. Three times a day, piglets should receive fresh, nutritious food. Not eaten should be thrown away. Intestinal diseases in fattening are unacceptable.
For fast growth, piglets must receive protein-rich foods. In the form of bone or fish meal, skim milk or milk. For full development, vitamin and mineral supplements are also needed.
When growing, it is undesirable to give ototyom to corn, buckwheat, bran of wheat, barley and rye. Such foods prematurely increase grease. If piglets are overfed with oilcake, soy or oats, then the meat can become loose, and the fat is yellow.
Two-month weaners should receive approximately:
- 150 g of grain
- 250 g carrots or fodder beets,
- 600 g of skim milk or skim milk
- 500 g of boiled potatoes and porridge made from ground grain or tart,
- 100 g of herbal flour
- 10 g of salt
- 15 g of chalk.
Gradually, you can add food waste, vegetable cleaning, grass and garden tops.
If possible, piglets need to be grazed. First, an hour, then up to 6-8 hours a day. In winter, you can accustom to silage, hay dust, vegetables.
By the way! It is forbidden to feed pigs with bananas, citrus fruits, coffee grounds and tea leaves. Cake from cotton and from castor bean nut can be especially dangerous. They are rich in the poison of the alkaloid of glossossol.If possible, piglets need to be grazed
Features of fattening pigs for meat
The grown piglets are transferred to fattening when they get used to all types of feed. This occurs at the age of 3 to 4 months, with a weight of 25-30 kg. A piglet correctly prepared for fattening can produce up to 700 g of weight gain per day.
You need to feed regularly, at the same time. Two, maximum three times a day. Too frequent feeding contributes to the deposition of adipose tissue.
Well, if this period falls in the spring or summer. Walking and pasture are good help when fattening. In addition, the initial period of fattening should be a third of green succulent feed.
Access to clean water should be continuous. Depending on the age and consistency of the feed, the gilt can drink up to 8 liters of water.
The temperature in the fattener should not drop below + 15 ° C. Humidity is not less than 60-70%. In such conditions, pigs have better appetite and well-being.
With meat fattening, pigs cannot be fed to the dump. Excess food goes for fat formation. Between feedings, feeders should be empty and clean.
Grass, tops and vegetables should be chopped. Small parts of plants are better absorbed. Legumes are very good for fattening: alfalfa, clover, clover. Of cruciferous, rapeseed, turnip, cabbage are desirable. Cabbage can not be given before slaughter, stop for a month, otherwise the meat will be sour. Nettles, quinoa, vetch, burdock, dandelion, peas, beet tops, squash and pumpkin leaves are very useful for both piglets and the budget for feeding. Piglets and any weeds eat.
Pigs have a good sense of smell, and they bypass toxic plants. But this is in the pasture, and in the heat of group feeding they can grab anything. Therefore, it is necessary to exclude the ingestion of celandine, lily of the valley, caustic buttercup, soap dish, milkweed, horse dill, black nightshade, pikulnik, dog parsley and others.
Food waste must always be thermally processed. Not processed, they turn sour and cause poisoning and, consequently, diarrhea.
Meat and fish waste is given to pigs only when cooked. Salt fish before feeding should be soaked from salt, then cook. A month before slaughter, do not give fish - otherwise the meat will smell unpleasant, they also exclude oats, oilcake, soy and millet before slaughter.
Avoid feeding boiled beets, raw potatoes, moldy or parasite feeds. Potatoes, corn and wheat bran give meat friability and bad taste. On the contrary, barley and dairy products give the meat a pleasant taste.
Food temperature should not exceed 40 ° C. Hot foods need to be cooled before feeding. Pigs themselves do not know how to wait, they will burn their esophagus and stomach.
Vitamins and Mineral Supplements
Minerals, salt and vitamins should be mixed into the feed. There are many of them - bone meal, chalk, salt, eggshell, tricalcium phosphate, coal and charcoal, wood ash, shell rock, sapropel, calcareous tuff, travertines, turf. They are rich in macro- and microelements - phosphorus, iron, chlorine, sodium, calcium, zinc, sulfur.
Without micro and macro elements growth and development of piglets is impossible. Their presence in the feed is mandatory. But it’s easier to buy ready-made vitamin and mineral supplements. Their cost is much less than the resulting benefit from the gain in gain due to the use of mixtures.Wet food is the most favorable food for the digestion of pigs, as it takes a lot of water to digest food.
Technologies for fattening pigs for meat
Depending on the feed, three types of pig feeding are used:
- Concentrated Potato: grain mixtures - 70% of the diet, potatoes - 30%.
- Concentrated root: in this diet, three quarters of cereals and a quarter of root crops.
- Concentrate: whole grain diet.
In fattening, concentrates of piglets are fed 2 times a day. Combined feed give three times a day. Potatoes and root crops can be partially replaced by combisilos, grass, bean hay or grass meal. Up to a third of the feed can be replaced with food waste.
There are 2 main modes of feeding and feeding:
1. Quantitative fattening:
a) Feeding ad libitum. Piglets are given more food than they can eat. It is used for young animals and when using dry feed mixtures not subject to acidification. Once a week, the feeders are cleaned of residues. That which does not turn sour may also grow moldy.
b) Feeding according to the norms. Three times a day set the amount that the pigs will definitely eat in 2 hours. So they feed nursing queens and fatteners.
c) Limited feeding. So you need to feed pregnant pigs. The same method is used to produce lean meat. Achieved by low-calorie food, in which there is more roughage, as well as with a decrease in feed rates.
2. Fattening by age standards:
a) Pregnant queens are fed once a day. To fill the stomach and free time, they are added one more feed with roughage. Since they are especially not allowed to gain weight.
b) Sows after weaning, lactating and single pigs are fed twice a day.
c) Weaners, gilts and fattening piglets are fed three times a day. During preparation for slaughter, for three days they switch to double feeding, on the last day they give only roughage. A different regime would be a waste of feed. And excess waste during slaughter.When feeding dry feeds, access to water in pigs should be mandatory, free and constant.
Consistency feed types
Wet food is the best food for pig digestion, as it takes a lot of water to digest food. Food usually contains boiled potatoes, steamed compound feed, fodder root crops, as well as food waste and chopped fresh grass or steamed hay. Wet foods have the fastest absorption. Small expenditures of energy and energy for such digestion strengthen the immunity of piglets. With this feeding, fattening takes place in a short time.
Such a blender is easy to prepare in the presence of a sufficiently equipped feed mill. It is only necessary to wash the feeders from food debris. Sour food is a source of flies and intestinal problems.
There are sometimes cunning pig farmers who add the antibiotic "Bicillin" to the feed. Piglets may have less digestive problems, but then we eat meat with antibiotics ourselves.
Wet feeding is very effective, but also just as labor intensive. In addition to the feed itself, it is necessary to carry water, which feed is diluted. In addition, wet food is not just a mash of food with water. At a minimum, everything should be steamed, or even welded. And this, again, the cost of labor, time, as well as electricity.
A pig is an omnivorous animal, but only concentrated feed can efficiently digest it. Protein must be present in pigs for fattening. Protein is rich in legumes, oilcakes, food yeast, reverse, fishmeal. Foods with such additives are very nutritious, but deteriorate quite quickly. Therefore, they can not be left in the trough for more than an hour.
If there is no refrigerator in the pigsty and no one claims to leftovers, throw out the remaining food. However, if there are more than two piglets, there will always be one who wants to go.
The most common type of feeding. It is used on industrial farms; accordingly, this type is very popular among the population near these farms. With this type, complete feed is used. It is rich in calories, vitamins and trace elements.
This is its main advantage. That is, the feed preparation process has already passed at the manufacturer, and the pig farmer saves his time very much. Labor costs are also less, since dry food is much lighter than wet. But, with such feeding, access to clean water should be mandatory, free and constant.
Dry food is well stored, and it is also easy to prepare it yourself. Another plus of such feeding is indoor and dry and clean.
Tab. I. Comparison of the quantitative characteristics of the daily norm of grain and feed
|Cereal||Units rev.||Feeding rate per head of 50 kg||Feed per day||Feed units in 1 kg of feed||Sut. weight gain|
|Barley||kg||2,3-2,5||from two or more||1, 21||500 g|
|Millet||kg||2,3||from two or more||0,96||500 g|
|Wheat||kg||2,1-2,4||from two or more||not less than 1.2||500 g|
|Oats||kg||2,1||from two or more||1||500 g|
|Rye||kg||2||from two or more||1,18||500 g|
|Peas||kg||from 2||from two or more||1,17||500 g|
|Corn||kg||up to 2||from two or more||1,34||500 g|
The disadvantage of such feeding is its danger to the respiratory tract. The smallest piglets are most susceptible to respiratory pathologies from inhaling small particles. Therefore, you need to monitor the presence of flour in the feed. The smaller it is, the less problems there will be with respiratory diseases.
The disadvantages include its high cost.
Granules are very similar in their effects to dry feeding. But there is absolutely no powdery fraction in it, so it is good to give it to small piglets. It is excellent to use and fattening.
Concentrates are a mixture of mineral and vitamin complexes, as well as protein supplements. Concentrate feeding can also be attributed to the dry type of feeding, but it is completely balanced.
Only its high cost can be considered a minus.